Winston Churchill and Sir Herbert Samuel in 1921
Winston Churchill and Sir Herbert Samuel (1921).       Source: Times of Israel. Public Domain.

Author: Eduardo Freire Canosa


The object of this webpage, "Zionism & Galiciana," is to offer a novel backdrop to the gestation of the modern State of Israel. Selected excerpts from four classic Zionist works are juxtaposed with clippings of contemporary Galician newspapers.

The four Zionist authors are Moses Hess (1812-1875), Leon Pinsker (1821-1891), Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) and Ziv Jabotinsky (1880-1940).

Their classic works are "Rome and Jerusalem" (1862), "Auto-emancipation" (1882), "The Jewish State" (1895) and "The Iron Wall" (1923). The first three were originally written in German, and the fourth in Russian. The source of a translation to English or to Spanish is the Internet Archive for "Rome and Jerusalem," Araucaria for "Auto-emancipación," Masuah for "El Estado Judío" and the Jabotinsky Institute in Israel for "The Iron Wall." All Spanish text is translated to English by the author.

"Galiciana" is the name of the online Digital Library of Galicia. The website is managed by the Central Library of Galicia and is sponsored by the regional government. Xunta de Galicia launched the project officially on June 15, 2012. By the close of 2013 the digital library boasted more than 147,000 pages of monographs, charts and pamphlets, and more than 87,000 pages of historical Galician periodicals and newspapers. The access to the collection is free and open to everyone.

The government of Spain was not interested in the events of Palestine or the progress of Zionism over the historical period covered by this work, and secular Galician newspapers reflected this.

Only the Catholic press displayed keen interest in both topics after the fall of Jerusalem in 1917 and the onset of the British Mandate in 1919. The main concern of the Roman Catholic Church was its diminished influence in Palestinian affairs and the second-class status given to its enclaves and sanctuaries under the Mandate. Well-informed Galician newspapers and periodicals of Catholic stripe subsequently criticized Zionism sharply together with the unqualified British support for it.

Lengthy articles and news stories hearken back to events at least a hundred years old. The focus is on the plight of the Jews in Europe, on Judaism, Zionism and Palestine. This "News from Galiciana" section runs from April 10, 1813, to December 1, 1923.

Whether you are pro- or anti-Zionist or indifferent, the data presented, the news reports and the arguments given will probably rivet your curiosity.


Clicking on a number will take you to the corresponding chapter right away

  1.    Moses Hess

  2.    Leon Pinsker

  3.    Theodor Herzl

  4.    Ziv Jabotinsky

1. Moses Hess

Moses Hess

Source: Wikipedia.

Moses Hess (1812-1875) was a German-Jewish philosopher, early Communist and Zionist thinker. He was born in Bonn under French rule at the time. He married a poor Catholic seamstress, Sibylle Pesch, "in order to redress the injustice perpetrated by society." Although they remained happily married until Hess' death, Sibylle may have had an affair with Friedrich Engels as he was smuggling her from Belgium to France to be reunited with her husband. Sibylle claimed the relationship was non-consensual and accused Engels of rape. Marx, Engels and Hess had taken refuge in Brussels in 1845 and lived on the same street. By the end of the decade, however, Marx and Engels had fallen out with Hess. Hess died in Paris in 1875. He was buried in the Jewish cemetery of Cologne. In 1961 he was re-interred in the Kinneret Cemetery of Israel along with other Socialist-Zionists. He is considered a pioneer of Labour Zionism. Full article here.


1813 - 1859

April 10, 1813. Los guerrilleros por la religión, la patria y el Rey, diario polémico-religioso de la Coruña, month IV, number 74, pages 195-96.
tr. Guerrillas for the religion, the fatherland and the King, polemist-religious daily of A Coruña.

Colloquy between Adiáforo and Philaleto (extract)

Adiáforo. You said prior some stuff about tolerance, Philaleto, wanting to insinuate that a bit of this methodology seeps into the paper of the abbé of Valdeorres.1

Philaleto. Read what the pamphlet full of piffles says, Adiáforo, and you will see that on pages 43 and 44 its learned author stamps a dark libel on the good inquisitor Lucero,2 presents as fact that the Inquisition 3 hangs Jews from the pulleys merely for being Hebrews and likes this Jewish people of today to be still the one of whom God said, "Israel is my son." It is apparent that the good Doctor has not read holy Scripture much and that he stands in need of Franklin 4 teaching him a few lessons. If Jews are the sons of God they must be so through the flesh because they descend from Abraham, but what does the Apostle say? "Not all those tallied as Israelites are Israelites nor all those who descend from Abraham are his sons, but only they who receive the promises delivered by God to Abraham; however these branches are presently cut off from their trunk, propter incredulitatem fracti sunt" (Rom. II). Who then gave our Doctor of new lights licence to tag "son of God" a people whom God censured for their disbelief and stubbornness? And why is this illuminato so generous to and so compassionate an advocate of the Jews when he should know, being a prelate, that neither the Church—mother so compassionate—nor he himself—whom I presume during Mass prays to and intercedes before God for all pagans and heretics—prays for the Jews? Does he not realize that these are the most resolute and obstinate enemies of Christianity, and that if they could but for a moment erase it from the face of the earth they would sacrifice all their wealth and cash to do so?

1 "Valdeorres" is today Valdeorras, a Galician county in the province of Ourense.
2 Diego Rodríguez de Lucero was a priest and inquisitor of the Kingdom of Castile based in Córdoba between 1499 and 1507. His harsh and unjust persecutions created a reign of terror, and eventually he was removed from office. Wikipedia biography here.
3 The Spanish Inquisition lasted from 1478 to 1834. Wikipedia article here.
4 Franklin is the famous Benjamin Franklin. He is introduced facetiously in number 68 where a third character named Thoribóde narrates to Adiáforo and Philaleto his accidental fictional sojourn in Pennsylvania and his close acquaintance with Benjamin Franklin and a certain Rabbi Daniel. Influenced by their philosophy and by the teachings of Protestant ministers who frequent Franklin's house, Thoribóde returns to Spain recast as a "tumultuary liberal" and an antipapist. Philaleto bewails the makeover and denounces the "disciples of the grand masters of impiety who wreak havoc among the sheep of J. C." (pp. 151-52).

February 15, 1850. Revista Médica, periódico de la Academia de Emulación de Santiago, year 1850, number 48, page 240.
tr. Medical Journal, periodical of the Emulation Academy of Santiago de Compostela.

Miscellaneous: Introduction of jennet's milk in therapeutics

The widespread use of jennet's milk in illnesses derived from lassitude or from thoracic diseases was initiated in France by a Jew during the monarchy of Francis I. This king felt surpassingly weak; the fatigues of war and intemperance whittled him down to a state of languor that worsened each day. The king was told about a Jew of Constantinople who had the reputation of curing this type of ailment. Francis I sent a letter to his ambassador in Turkey with the charge of bringing the Israelite physician at all costs. He arrived, and the only remedy he prescribed was jennet's milk. This remedy had an excellent effect; at once all the courtiers, male and female, took up the same regimen.

December 24, 1856. La Oliva: periódico de política, literatura e intereses materiales, year I, number 94, page 1.
tr. The Olive Tree, periodical of politics, literature and material interests.

Foreign News: Situation of the Jews in Russia

The situation of the Jews has improved markedly under the present government of Russia.1 Today they can send their children to institutes of privileged learning. Furthermore medical doctors and lawyers may become civil servants of the State, and the five-year exemption from military service will prove very advantageous to this class of citizens. The deputies who observe the Jewish religion will convene shortly in St. Petersburg to agree on various points for improving the lot of the Israelites.

1 The Czar at this time was Alexander II (to 1881).

July 16, 1859. Boletín para el clero del Obispado de Lugo, year 1859, number 29, page 1.
tr. Bulletin for the clergy of the Bishopric of Lugo.

Characters of truth in the Books of Moses (extract)

Since the Lord has wanted to make use of Moses to establish the Jewish religion, which is the first foundation of Christianity, the name of the holy Prophet and his writings are insufferable to skeptics, and for that reason, they spare nothing to obliterate even his memory...

It is true that Jews and Christians have always regarded him as a great prophet. Why then maliciously deprive him of a glory that is rightly his, acquired long ago? All the more is that glory grounded when characters of truth are detectable in his text: he instructs us concerning the creation of the world, he transmits his sacred conversations with God and gives us the noblest idea of the Creator that human understanding can fathom. The text portrays the Creator's divine perfections in the warmest colours and prescribes laws full of equity and most capable of preserving the union and instituting good order. What is reprehensible about this? Should one mistrust a man who reasons so well and whose humbleness reaches the extreme of revealing his defects to us?

God makes use of Moses to lead a predilect people and authorizes his mission with the greatest wonders, those marvels he recounts in his books. Can this be a reason for treating him like an impostor when ours are more potent for regarding him as a holy Prophet? Can we with any justice refuse to believe him when he relates to us what he has seen and done, especially when a great body like the Jewish nation attests on his behalf?




From the time that Innocent III evolved the diabolical plan to destroy the moral stamina of the Jews (the bearers of Spanish culture to the world of Christendom) by forcing them to wear a badge of shame on their garments, until the audacious kidnapping of a Jewish child from the house of his parents (which occurred under the government of Cardinal Antonelli) Papal Rome symbolizes an inexhaustible well of poison to the Jews.1,2 It is only with the drying-up of this source that Christian German Anti-Semitism will die from lack of nourishment (p. 35).

1 Pope Innocent III ruled the Roman Catholic Church from 1198 to 1216.
2 The audacious kidnapping took place in 1858. The child's name was Edgardo Montara.

Second Letter

The great teachers of the knowledge of God were always Jews. Our people not only created the noblest religion of the ancient world, a religion which is destined to become the common property of the entire civilized world, but continued to develop it, keeping pace with the progress of the human spirit. And this mission will remain with the Jews until the end of days, i.e., until the time when, according to the Promise of our Prophets, the world will be filled with the knowledge of God. The "end of days", so often spoken of by the Prophets, is not to be understood to mean, as some misinterpret it, the end of the world, but it denotes the period when the development and education of humanity will reach their highest point (pp. 47-48).

Fourth Letter

It seems that on account of the hatred which surrounds him on all sides, the German Jew is determined to estrange himself from Judaism as far as possible, and endeavours even to deny his race. No reform of the Jewish religion, however extreme, is radical enough for the educated German Jew. But the endeavours are vain. Even conversion itself does not relieve the Jew from the enormous pressure of German Anti-Semitism. The German hates the Jewish religion less than the race; he objects less to the Jews' peculiar beliefs than to their peculiar noses. Neither Reform nor conversion nor emancipation throw the gates of social life open to the Jew, hence his anxiety to deny his racial descent (pp. 58-59).

Fifth Letter

To our educated German Jews, the feeling of hatred toward the Jews displayed by the Germans has always remained an unsolved puzzle. Was not the entire effort of German Jews since the days of Mendelssohn 1 directed toward becoming wholly Germanized, to thinking and feeling as Germans? Have they not striven carefully to eradicate every trace of their ancient nationality? Have they not fought in the "War of Liberation"? Were they not Teutomaniacs and French devourers? Did we not chant but yesterday with Nicholas Becker, "They shall not possess it, the free German Rhine"? 2 Did I myself not commit the unpardonable stupidity of sending a musical composition of this "German Marsellaise" to the author of this song?

And yet I had to feel, in a personal way, the same disappointment that German Jewry in general experienced after it had given repeated demonstration of its patriotic enthusiasm. I also had to experience the sad fact that the German to whom I sent my manuscript, glowing with patriotic emotion, not only responded with an icy tone, but as if to fill the cup of bitterness to the brim, wrote on the reverse of his letter, in disguised script, the words, "You are a Jew." I forgot then that Germans not only discriminated against the Jews after the War of Liberation, but even persecuted their erstwhile comrades in arms against the French with the frequent cries of Hep, Hep.3 I, on the other hand, took Becker's Hep Hep as a personal insult and accordingly wrote him a letter in undisguised script, making a few unpleasant remarks, which this honest German passed over in silence, most likely feeling ashamed of his rudeness. Today I could have apologized to this German poet for, as I see clearly now, it was by no means intended as a personal insult (pp. 71-72).

The Teutomaniac loves not the State but race dominance in his love of the Fatherland. How then can he conceive granting equal rights to other races when equality is still an Utopia for the large masses of Germany? (p. 73).

1 Abraham Mendelssohn (1776-1835) was a German banker and philanthropist, the son of renowned philosopher Moses Mendelssohn, and the father of famous composer Felix Mendelssohn. Wikipedia biography here.
2 Nikolaus Becker (1809–1845) was a German poet famous for one poem, Der Deutschen Rhein (The German Rhine).
First published in the Trierische Zeitung on 18 September 1840, "Der deutsche Rhein" immediately took the public arena by storm. According to Hagen Schulze, every German newspaper printed it within only one month. Conradin Kreutzer, a music director in Cologne, sold 1200 copies of his musical arrangement for the text in less than two days; other professional and amateur composers submitted hundreds of arrangements to competitions announced in the periodic press. Becker's poem inspired residents in his hometown of Geilenkirchen to organize a torch-lit parade in his honor, and the poem also accompanied numerous public occasions.

Lorie A. Vanchena. The Rhine Crisis of 1840: Rheinlider, German Nationalism, and the Masses, pp. 242-43. PDF available from KU ScholarWorks | Accessed 24 April 2024.

3 Hep, hep. Here is an evocative Mexican Army cadence.

Ninth Letter

England with its industrial organization represents the nervous system of humanity which governs and regulates its digestive system; France represents social stimulation; Germany, brain power; and America the assimilation of all cultures into one (p. 124).

In the organism of humanity there are no two peoples that attract and repel one another more than the Germans and the Jews, just as no two other mental attitudes exist more kin though diametrically opposed than the scientific-philosophical and the religious-moral (pp. 124-25).

Twelfth Letter

The rigid crust of orthodox Jewry will melt when the spark of Jewish patriotism, now smouldering underneath, is kindled into a sacred fire heralding the arrival of Spring and the resurrection of our nation. On the other hand, Western Judaism is covered by an almost indissolvable crust of the dead residue of the first manifestation of the modern spirit, an extinct rationalist enlightenment. This crust will not be melted by the fire of Jewish patriotism; it can only be cracked by an external pressure under whose weight everything that has no future must give up its existence. In contrast to Orthodoxy, which cannot be obliterated by an external force without endangering the embryo of Jewish Nationalism that slumbers internally, the hard shell that envelops the hearts of our cultured Jews will be shattered only by a blow from without, one which world events are already preparing and which will probably fall in the near future (pp. 176-77).


The age of race dominance is at an end. As soon as even the smallest nation, Germanic or Romance, Slavic or Finnic, Celtic or Semitic, advances its claims to a seat among the historical nations, it will find sympathy in the powerful civilized Western nations.

Like the patriots of other unfortunate nations, German patriots can attain their aim only by means of a friendly alliance with the progressive and powerful nations of the world. But if they (the German patriots) continue to conjure themselves, as well as the German people, with the might and glory of the "German Sword," they will only add grave new mistakes to the old unpardonable ones, they will only play into the hands of the reaction and drag all Germany along with them (p. 233).

Did Moses Hess anticipate why the Holocaust occurred?

Accepting his premises it can be stated that the Holocaust occurred because these three factors concurred:

  1. Christian German Anti-Semitism imbibed Papal Rome's "inexhaustible well of poison to the Jews."

  2. The Teutomaniac loved race dominance in his love of the Fatherland.

  3. Germans conjured themselves with the might and glory of the "German Sword."

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2. Leon Pinsker

Leon Pinsker

Source: Wikipedia.

Leon Pinsker (1821–1891) was a physician and Zionist activist. Born in southeast Poland he was educated in Odessa where he studied Law, but he was unable to practice because of discrimination. He supported equal rights for Jews, but the Odessa Pogroms (1871 and 1881) curtailed his optimism. These events motivated him to found and lead the Hibbat Zion ("Lovers of Zion") Movement in 1881. Disputes in the Odessa Committee and the Ottoman restriction on Jewish emigration barred Pinsker from resettling in Palestine. He died in Odessa in 1891. His remains were later brought to Jerusalem in 1934. Full article here.


1867 - 1882

April 10, 1867. Boletín Oficial del Arzobispado Eclesiástico de Santiago, year VI, number 182, pages 153-55.
tr. Official bulletin of the Ecclesiastical Archbishopric of Santiago.

Israelites living in Europe at the start of 1867 1

There are no statistics for the number of Israelites living in England. The estimate is 2 million.3

1 I reordered the published list by descending size of the Jewish constituency.
2 The bulletin prints a total of 3,297,478 Israelites, which is off by 600,696.
3 A gross overestimate. On March 18, 1891, Diario de avisos de La Coruña put the number of Jews living in England at around 100,000. On January 30, 1906, El Correo Gallego gave a figure of 80,000.

May 26, 1867. El Buscapié, periódico semanal de intereses generales, year II, number 56, page 1.
tr. The Talking Point, weekly periodical of a general genre.

The Jews and the Pope

El Boletín del Clero de Lugo in an article entitled, "The Jews and the Pope," reflects on the letter sent by the two Hebrew Lehman brothers 1 to the Israelites encouraging them to show their gratitude to the Roman Pontiff for the many benefits they have always received from the Vicar of Christ.

1 Mayer and Emanuel Lehman, Henry had died in 1855. Wikipedia article here.

July 12, 1876. El Diario de Santiago: de intereses materiales, noticias y anuncios, year V, number 1206, page 1.
tr. The Santiago Daily, dealing with subjects of material interest, news and advertising.

The Israelite ritual stays banned in Spain

The newspaper El Imparcial says: "The Israelites of the United States, Great Britain, France and Germany have sent to His Majesty the King 1 arguments for restoring the civil rights and freedom of religion enjoyed by the Jews in Spain until 1492. A ministerial newspaper reproduced those arguments but it deems that the petition will be refused for two reasons: (1) it is not incumbent upon the King alone but upon him and the Courts to judge this instance, and (2) Israelite worship is prohibited by Article 11 of the Constitution which officially endorses the Roman Catholic Church and the remittance of clergymen's salaries."

1 Alfonso XII ruled Spain from 1874 to 1885.

August 14, 1878. El Diario de Santiago: de intereses materiales, noticias y anuncios, year VII, number 1802, page 2.
tr. The Santiago Daily, dealing with subjects of material interest, news and advertising.

The Israelite Alliance convenes in Paris

The thirteenth general assembly of the Israelite Alliance met the day before yesterday, Monday afternoon, with M. Crémieux 1 the notable politician presiding. The session was more solemn than ever. In attendance were eminent Jews of Europe and America, representatives of the prominent Israelite societies of Berlin, London, Vienna, Wroclaw, Brussels, Königsberg and New York, plus delegates of the Hebrew press in the United States.

Mr. Kompert 2 the famous novelist of the Ghetto voiced his delight that his race had finally witnessed the grant and sanction of its civil and political rights by an European Congress. Several speakers expressed the same sentiment. The session closed after drafting instructions for committees worldwide and agreeing to meet again in 1879.

The Jewish people march resolutely toward the new Jerusalem and it's not hidden from anybody that a great destiny awaits them. After all it's the only race that has kept itself young, strong and pure.

1 Adolphe Crémieux (1796-1880) was a French lawyer and politician who served as Minister of Justice under the Second Republic; he was also the president of the Alliance Israélite Universelle. Wikipedia biography here.
2 Leopold Kompert (1822-1886) was a Bohemian Jewish writer. Wikipedia biography here.

February 7, 1880. El Trabajo, year III, number 161, page 2.
tr. Work, published in Ourense.

Riot in Fez

An anti-Jewish riot has just taken place in Fez, habitual residence of the Emperor of Morocco. A Moor rode over some Israelite boys playing out on the street and a Jew ran out of the house to defend them. His act triggered a city-wide rumour that the Jews wanted to emancipate. All rabbis found on the street were assaulted and the Jewish quarter came perilously close to being set on fire. Some Israelites were murdered and their corpses torched by the furious Moors.

Fez, mosque front gate

More than thirty pregnant Jewish women aborted when they saw the brutal aggression directed at their husbands and children and the great peril run by the Israelite population.

February 10, 1880. El Trabajo, year III, number 163, page 1.
tr. Work, published in Ourense.

The Jews in Morocco

Tangier. Stirred by the persecution and abuses which the Jews of the empire of Morocco have been subjected to for some time, most representatives of the European sovereigns have called on the Sultan to halt the harassment of the unfortunate Israelites. The U.S. consul made his protest in very vigorous and meaningful terms.

March 9, 1880. Gaceta de Galicia: Diario de Santiago, year II, number 337, page 2.
tr. Galicia Gazette, Santiago daily.

The rabbis of Fez

The rabbis of Fez mailed a letter to the Anglo-Hebraic Association of London giving details about the assassination of the Jew named Abraham el Aloof and about the crusade launched against the Israelites in Morocco, to whom Muslim authorities deny all justice.

Thus the days have returned when the Jews must cross Muslim neighbourhoods barefoot even if there are no mosques or holy sites, and the Jews must not cover their head. One did so on a rainy day and got seriously beaten. The adules (notaries public) declined to attest the pitiful state he was left in. The cali (judge) also refused, adamantly, noting that "Jews, Christians and slaves have no blood."

It is hard to believe that the European diplomatic corps in Tangier will remain indifferent much longer to the cruel persecution suffered by the unhappy members of the Hebrew community to the dishonor and scandal of our epoch.

June 20, 1881. Gaceta de Galicia: Diario de Santiago, year III, number 705, page 2.
tr. Galicia Gazette, Santiago daily.

Will 60,000 Russian Hebrews come to Spain?

The following note is reprinted from the newspaper El Liberal.

The Minister of State received the day before yesterday a telegram from Conde de Rascón the representative of Spain in Constantinople informing that a Hebrew from Russia had come to the government of the Sultan pleading protection for Hebrew Slavs. This Israelite spoke on behalf of 60,000 natives of south Russia counties who were abused, mistreated and ousted by subjects of the Czar.

The Israelites convinced themselves that their lives were in peril, so they abandoned their homes in great numbers and sought the protection of other European nations.

This huge mass of Israelites, rejected and persecuted by the conservative Germans and having passage through Serbia denied, wishes to go to Austria if it can not stay in Turkey or head to the free countries of North America as a last resort.

This Israelite spokesman subsequently came to Conde de Rascón and the two had a long conversation. He speaks antiquated and flawed Spanish like almost all of his 60,000 companions do.

The Minister of State informed the king yesterday about the matter and the king requested that a telegram be sent to Constantinople stating that he and his government would view with satisfaction the return of those migrant Israelites to their old homeland.

"It is necessary to mend in part the blunders of our ancestors," said the king, "and this was one of their biggest."

April 24, 1882. Gaceta de Galicia: Diario de Santiago, year IV, number 950, page 2.
tr. Galicia Gazette, Santiago daily.

Pogroms in Russia

Berlin, 20. Dispatches from the Russian frontier, citing letters as the source, furnish "horrifying" details about the attacks on Jews.

In Balta [Ukraine] the people wounded 700 Israelites, 40 of whom are in "very serious" condition.

Women were the object of the "most repugnant" assaults.

Only sixteen out of some hundreds of houses owned by Jews were left standing.

The rest were looted and set ablaze.

Over 20,000 Hebrews were reduced to destitution.

Funds from Odessa have arrived to help these unfortunate ones.

The losses amount to 3 million rubles. Some 200 persons have been arrested, accused of inciting the riots.

Berlin, 21. Tumults against the Jews have reocurred in Letitchev [Ukraine] where some houses belonging to Israelites have been plundered.

Calm has returned to Balta after the great atrocities committed there.

In Karpovitch [Lithuania] the rabble despoiled every tavern owned by Jews. The presence of troops was required to avert general plunder.

The Hebrews are very vulnerable in rural towns due to the absolute absence of police.

Peasants show great animosity toward the Jews. Because of the official censorship Russian newspapers play down the importance of the upheavals that occurred in various localities, but the dispatches and letters received here agree that the events are extremely serious.

May 28, 1882. El Correo Gallego, year V, number 1118, page 2.
tr. The Galician Mail, morning daily published in Ferrol.

Pogroms in Russia

In "Fowduo" (Russia) a fierce blaze razed 105 Israelite homes worth more than half a million rubles; the houses were insured. A large number of Jews were victims of horrendous events from Vilnius [Lithuania] to Minsk [Belarus]. Even babies were wrested from their mother's arms and burned alive in her presence.

The coronation of the Czar in Moscow will demur until 1883 because there is evidence of a great Nihilist conspiracy.



Author's Foreword

A moment of calm has followed the anguish of the massacre, and persecutors and persecuted may catch their breath a little. Meanwhile the Jews are being repatriated from Palestine with funds collected precisely for their emigration to Palestine. But Western Jews have learned once more to put up with the yell, Hep, Hep, as their fathers did in bygone days. The fiery explosion of anger sparked by the affront borne has given way to a precipitation of ash blanketing the scorched earth. Close your eyes and hide your head like the ostrich, but if you don't take advantage of this transient pause and contemn lifesaving means more radical than the poultices of quacks applied to our unfortunate people during millennia a lasting peace will never be yours.

September, 1882

(p. 166).

* * *

And so Judaism and Jew hatred go together throughout history. As with the eternal Ahasuerus 1 the hatred seems to never end. Only a blind man can dispute that Jews are the chosen people of universal hatred. The peoples can be quite different from one another but they shake hands in their animosity toward the Jews, on this all peoples concur. The amount and tone of the spite depends on the degree of civilization owned, but the spite manifests itself always and everywhere through violent acts: persecutions rooted in envy or concealed under a mask of tolerance and protection (p. 170).

Summarizing what has been said: The Jew is a zombie to the living, an out-of-towner to locals, a hobo to the settled, a beggar to the affluent; an exploiter millionaire to the needy, a foreigner to patriots and a despised competitor to everybody (pp. 172-73).

Pathetic image ours! We are not deemed to be a nation and so we have no say in their councils even in the matters which concern us. Our fatherland is the foreign nation, our unity the diaspora, our solidarity the universal hostility, our weapon meekness, our defence flight; our originality conformity; our future the day after. What an appalling role for a people to play who in olden days had their Maccabees! (p. 175).

And then there is the faith in the Messiah, the belief in the arrival of a benevolent supernatural power, plus the religious proposition to endure the divine punishments patiently, all of which has made us neglect our national liberation, unity and independence. We set aside the idea of the fatherland with a greater eagerness the greater grows our material comfort. And so we sank ever deeper. The ones without a fatherland got to forget the fatherland. Hasn't the hour arrived at last to bear out how much disgrace that has meant for us? (p. 176).

Naturally the founding of a Jewish haven can not be realized without the backing of governments. To acquire our haven, and to secure a permanent stability for it, the makers of our national rebirth must proceed with utmost prudence and perseverance. What we long for is at heart not novel or dangerous for anyone.2 Instead of the many havens that until this day we have grown accustomed to look for, we now wish to have an unique haven whose existence however must be guaranteed (pp. 186-87).

1 "Ahasuerus" was a name given to the Wandering Jew. Wikipedia article here.
2 How not so? The peaceful creation of an independent state through the leave of a ruling government was unheard of until the breakup of the Soviet Union. Furthermore the new haven would of course represent a danger to refractory inhabitants pleased with the status quo ante.

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3. Theodor Herzl

Theodor Herzl

Source: Wikipedia.

Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) was an Austro-Hungarian lawyer and journalist. He is officially dubbed, "the spiritual father of the Jewish State," because he organized the first Zionist Congress in 1897 with the goal of bringing Jews from all over the world together for the task of building a separate homeland of their own. Full article here.


1883 - 1897

June 6, 1883. El Eco de Orense, year IV, number 266, page 2.
tr. The Echo of Ourense, a political newspaper.

Pogrom in Rostok

Berlin. An uprising against the Jews of this German city [Rostok] brought the destruction of 130 Israelite houses. This makes us remember the horrendous persecutions carried out by Russian mobs a while ago.

Are we in the nineteenth century or are we shrouded in the shadows of the Inquisition and the most outsize religious intolerance? Such cruel attempts on the inviolate rights of the human personality must unremittingly be punished by the law.

Tangier viewed from port

January 10, 1885. El Correo Gallego, year VIII, number 1857, page 3.
tr. The Galician Mail, morning daily published in Ferrol.

Moroccan Jews seek French protection

Tangier, 8. The Israelites have appealed to M. Ordega the French representative for protection in light of the threats by Moroccans who announce a general slaughter of the Jews.

The French minister has offered his mediation so that Moroccan authorities stymie any act of aggression by the populace.

Holy Thursday April 22, 1886. El Correo Gallego, year IX, number 2239, pages 1-2.
tr. The Galician Mail, morning daily published in Ferrol.

Jerusalem (extract)

Today Jerusalem acts as the miserable capital of a province in Asian Turkey and as the residence of a military governor, a chief of police, a superintendent of Omar's Mosque, a Latin patriarch, a Greek one, an Armenian one, a Chief Rabbi and several consuls. Hardly 20,000 persons inhabit it, among them 8,000 Jews. The Latins, almost every one religious, dwell in "Ramich" near the city and in Bethlehem, submitting to the patriarch who lives in St. Saviour's Convent. The Muslims sleep on terraces under multicoloured tents, or by the citadel's gates. The Greeks moil and cook their delicacies inside the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. The Protestant mission devotes itself to teaching and walks among these and those, circumspect, stern and reserved.

Meanwhile the 8 or 10 thousand Israelites crowded between Mount Zion—where the Turks camp—and the Arab temple are silent and await Messiah's advent with undeniable tenacity.

Camels bedizened Oriental style

Almost all arrive in Jerusalem weighed down by old age and settle there to die in the sacred land and to be buried in the Valley of Josaphat where their elders' bones rest.

These members of a great people, unruffled and austere,—for whom lofty destinies yet wait, according to St. Paul—keep saying their prayer every day facing toward the spot where their temple stood in past centuries, for the Muslims who occupy it presently bar their access to it.

A peerless perseverance that evokes respectful compassion and causes even the most radical orthodox observer to forget the sins, errors and hubris of the so-called deicides!

The biblical groves of Gethsemane, Bethlehem and Bethania are withered, the summits desolate and the roads laden with dust. The arid plain of Josaphat extends off to one side. Some caves open their dark mouth in yellowish ravines and serve as lairs for the Bedouins or for the jackals.

In the middle of this sinister landscape immortal Jerusalem basks in the sun, seated on her four mountains (Zion, Akra, Ophel and Moriah) like a voiceless sphynx lying on the bedsheet of the desert.

Forlorn and barren, ensconced in a bifold of stone-strewn Judea, with a demeanor more of the dead than of the living, with less a trace of occupancy than of sepulchre, Jerusalem still overwhelms all peoples and nations who perceive in her a great majesty fallen down, but fret instinctively that one day they might spy some new legion of spirits storming out of her gates to shatter and do away with the decrepit fabric of our contemporary society.

This eternal city—damnéd or blessed—has supernatural aura; and its name, vibrating deep in our hearts, induces religious dread even upon those more inclined to the denial or to the doubt.


1 Alfredo Vicenti (1850-1916) was a writer, journalist and editor of several newspapers. Politically he was a liberal federal republican in favour of Galician autonomy. His best-known writings are: Perfiles del Ulla ("Profiles of the Ulla River"), the literary study El Romántico about the figure of Adam Mickiewicz the Polish bard, and the 120-page tome of poetry, Recuerdos y Esperanzas ("Memories and Hopes").

His pencil portrait drawing in La Tierra Gallega, dated March 3, 1895, here.

September 25, 1886. Diario de avisos de La Coruña, year XVI, number 8477, page 2.
tr. Daily Notices of A Coruña.

The Antisemitic Congress in Romania

Last week Bucharest hosted an Antisemitic Congress that lasted three days. Here, in document format, are the resolutions it passed.

The International Antisemitic Congress held in Bucharest approves and resolves to circulate and execute what follows:

(1) The Jews are deemed unworthy of staying in the midst of the peoples of Europe any longer.

(2) Until methods to expel them from European states are found, the Congress lays down for its followers of Romania, France, Hungary and potentially others elsewhere the task of petitioning their governments and parliaments:

(a) to proscribe any concession to the Jews by a State, district or commune, even if the Jews resort to using aliases.

(b) to refuse Jews, insurance companies, banks, etc., any job, project or posting remunerated by a State, district or commune.

(c) to ban the sale of property to Jews and to bar their leasing lands, houses or mills from others, or to others.

(d) To preclude Jews opening shops, restaurants, lodgings, hotels, cafeterias, taverns, distilleries or wine stores. To prohibit their being bakers, spice sellers, grain merchants, doctors or pharmacists.

(e) to pressure priests and ministers of every religion to spread these ideas among their parishioners, and to pressure academics and school teachers to avoid buying in Jewish stores or to hire their services.

All nations that embrace these resolutions must pressure their government into enacting germane laws and must create committees to demand the execution of these resolutions in every country by means of public referenda.

June 23, 1887. El Lucense, year IV, number 809, page 3.
tr. The Lugonian, evening Catholic daily published in Lugo.

Antisemitic demonstrations in Hungary

Vienna, 20. Under cover of the political elections here antisemitic demonstrations have reoccurred in "Dumaszendaheley" (Hungary).

Many candidates ran solely on the line of being an enemy of the Jews, whom they unjustly blame for all the country's ills.

Arsonists set fire to the Jewish neighbourhood; some 80 Hebrew families were left homeless in the greatest misery.

The bloody persecution of Israelites in Hungary hasn't had a precedent for the longest time.

The affluent families of rural towns contemplate emigrating in light of the abuses they are subjected to.

August 9, 1887. Diario de avisos de La Coruña, year XVI (sic), number 8793, page 3.
tr. Daily Notices of A Coruña.

The Jews in the United Kingdom

A curious statistic about the Israelite colony in the United Kingdom has been published in London.

It turns out that the Jews enjoy in that country two priceless boons: health and wealth.

Great Britain tallies 7,700,000 families, 10,000 of whom are Jewish.

For every 2,500 Christian families no more than one enjoys an annual income equal to or greater than 10,000 pounds whereas one out of every 100 Israelite families does.

In other words, there teems about the figures of the Rothschilds and Montefiores a swarm of little Croesi 1 whose fortunes altogether would relieve the biggest debt of a State.

From a hygienic perspective the statistic also reveals that the Jews have a notable advantage over the Christians of Great Britain. The cases of longevity are seven to eight times more frequent among Jews than among Christians.

1 Croesi: Plural form of "Croesus" the king famous for his wealth. Wikipedia article here.

January 8, 1891. Gaceta de Galicia, year XX, number 5, page 1.
tr. Galicia Gazette, published daily in Santiago de Compostela.

Russia bans Jewish lawyers

The Daily Chronicle inserts a dispatch from Vienna stating that the Russian Government intends to exclude Israelites from the legal profession.

The telegram adds that all present Jewish lawyers will be expelled from Russia.

March 18, 1891. Diario de avisos de La Coruña, year XX, number 10050, page 4.
tr. Daily Notices of A Coruña.

The Jews in Europe

M. Anatole Beaulieu the expert economist publishes a current events article in the Revue des Deux Mondes on the problem of antisemitism. The following data on the Israelite population and its distribution across the globe is extracted from that article.

The emancipation of this ill-starred race was decreed in 1791 in France with the intervention of Mirabeau, the abbot Grégoire, Duport and, above all, Robespierre.

Most European nations imitated France's example, albeit slowly. England proclaimed the emancipation of its Jewish population gradually over the period 1845-1858; Denmark in 1849; Austria-Hungary in 1867; Italy in 1868 and in 1870; Germany and Switzerland in 1869; Bulgaria in 1878 and Serbia in 1879. Russia and Romania on the eastern flank of Europe, and Spain and Portugal on the western, are the only peoples of the continent who still deny Israelites the rights enjoyed by the Christians.

Russia and Romania harbor more Jews in their territory than the rest of Europe. In particular the Moscovite empire has half of the world's Jews on its dominions.

The precise number of Israelites in all these countries is unknown. M. Beaulieu estimates there to be 8-9 million Jews worldwide, 7 million in Europe.


June 3, 1891. Gaceta de Galicia, year XXI (sic), number 121, page 1.
tr. Galicia Gazette, published daily in Santiago de Compostela.

Russia bans Jewish doctors

New measures have been taken against the Jews in St. Petersburgh. Jewish Army doctors have been ordered to convert to the Russian Orthodox religion or to resign from their post. The decree of expulsion in Poland affects 30,000 Jews.

July 2, 1891. Gaceta de Galicia, year XXI, number 143, pages 1-2.
tr. Galicia Gazette, published daily in Santiago de Compostela.

Baron Hirsch tries to rescue Russian Jews

A correspondent of The Times reports that 40,000 Jews are disposed to abandon Russia because of the persecution and abuses they endure. The majority inhabits the gubernias of Crimea, Kherson, Kiev and Besarabia.

Sir William White the representative of the wealthy Baron Hirsch sent to Russia to expedite their emigration despairs of obtaining a permit for their resettlement in Palestine.

October 25, 1892. El Lucense, diario católico de la tarde, year IX, number 2403, page 1.
tr. The Lugonian, evening Catholic daily published in Lugo.

And should we humiliate ourselves before the Jews?

Reprinted from La Semana Católica.1

Judaism can not soar higher or Spaniards plummet lower.

The perfidious and despicable Jewish race who crucified Jesus; who was a powerful and perpetual ally of the Saracens during the Reconquista campaign;2 who had secret dealings with the African Moors several times to have them invade and occupy our nation anew; who had managed to snatch the money and the most important and rewarding posts of Spain using detestable ruses; who made herself loathsome to every Christian over the centuries because of her heresies and folly; who stirred our most religious and prudent Kings to sweep her off our country as so much pestilence and rubbish, and who is currently being expelled from various European nations by Protestant and schismatic Governments; that perverse Jewish race is gradually sneaking into our house in hypocritical and cunning manner to eventually become lady of the noose and of the blade, and the landlady of lives and revenues like the feudal knights of old and to demand tribute and obeisance from us.

Like scavenging birds, but in good order and concert and assisted by the full might and influence of universal Masonry, the Jews firstly swooped down on barbarian peoples like Turkey, Egypt and Tunisia, whom they already possess. Now they establish centers in Paris, Vienna, London and Berlin to commandeer all the money of Europe through the International Financial Commissions. They direct their attacks primarily against Greece, Portugal and Spain where day by day they gain greater ascendancy and subjugating influence.

If the Jews have 24 prefects or governors in France plus a good portion of the newspapers, in Spain there are many Judaizers who with more or less gall render service to Judaism in the press, on the rostrum and possibly in other spheres or civil servant posts; the Jews impose on Spanish Governments when these must negotiate a loan. As La Verdad of Castellón 3 states, the Jews here are already landlords over half of the Peninsula; they have managed to take over all railway Companies and they will eventually take over everything and kick us out of this blessed land that the Virgin Mary sanctified and on which spattered the blood of so many martyrs of the Religion and of the fatherland.

And to show that we do not exaggerate, we will transcribe this juicy little paragraph published by a French newspaper, The Northern Cross,

In the partitioning of Spain among the children of Israel the Andalusian railways have been allotted to Hirsch Junior, the northern ones to Camondo, and the State's finances to Rothschild of London.

But if Judaism can not soar higher, neither can Spaniards dive lower. It seems incredible that the fatherland of Pelayo, Ramiro, Fernando III, El Cid, Jaime de Aragón, Guillén de Entenza, Perez del Pulgar and of the Catholic Kings must perforce suffer the shameful yoke and humiliating leash of the accursed race of Judah! Incredible it seems that the people of Covadonga and Clavijo, Gormaz and Roncesvalles, Otumba and El Bruch, Tunisia and Tetouan accedes to bend their haughty cervix and render their homages to the greedy sons of Jacob, whom our forefathers looked upon with disdain and whom they allocated room in our markets solely out of pity! Incredible it seems that the tattered Israelites have transmuted from beggars to millionaires, from vanquished to victors!

Honest and Catholic Spain must thank Masonry for all this since the Jews avail themselves of this odious sect to implement their plans of treacherous conquest and massive plunder. Presently the Masons and their sympathizers must be rejoicing—they who contested so rabidly our most pious Kings' expulsion of the Israelites from Spain and who endeavoured to open the doors of our fatherland for them with the clauses in the Constitutions of 1869 and 1875 enacting freedom or tolerance of religion.

Liberalism is what has brought the Jewish rabble to Spain again. They arrive not only with their inherited and eternal hatred of Christ and his Church but with the idea of dominating everything and making us their slaves.

And furthermore Europe presently owes the epidemic of morbid Asiatic cholera to them, as it has been archly verified.

1 "La Semana Católica" was a weekly periodical founded in 1886 and published in Salamanca.
2 The Reconquista was an intermittent campaign by the Christians to expel the Moors from Spain. Wikipedia article here.
3 "La Verdad" was a weekly Catholic periodical published in Castellón de la Plana between 1889 and 1900.

July 17, 1897. El Lucense, year XIV, number 3758, page 2.
tr. The Lugonian, Catholic daily published in Lugo with ecclesiastical censorship.

Scientific observatory in Jerusalem

Reprinted from the Hebrew magazine Hazewi [i.e. Ha-Tsevi].

The city of Jerusalem...has decided to build a long-overdue observatory, desired and indispensable in this country for making astronomical and meteorological observations. The initiative is underwritten by the generosity of a philantropic lady whose name the observatory will bear. Monsignor Patriarch of the Holy Land has taken the project under his wing and ceded 12,000 square feet [or 0.11 hectares] of land owned by the Community of the Holy Sepulchre. Mr. A. Andréskis the eminent architect and Mr. Arvanitakes, astronomer and Science professor, will supervise the construction work... The project's committee has also credited the distinguished and untiring Spaniard D. Francisco J. Besa by inscribing his name in the Golden Book and on a commemorative diploma as a founding member of the Observatory and Scientific Museum of the Holy Land.

Bethlehem: Going to market; making rosaries

August 4, 1897. El Alcance, year VI, number 167, page 1.
tr. The Reach, Catholic newspaper, independent, telegraphic, defender of the moral and economic interests of Galicia, published in Santiago de Compostela.

From Santiago to Bethlehem

Franciscan cleric Ramón Muíños from the convent of Santiago has been appointed Natural Sciences teacher at the Franciscan school of Bethlehem (Palestine).

August 20, 1897. El Lucense, year XIV, number 3787, page 3.
tr. The Lugonian, Catholic daily published in Lugo with ecclesiastical censorship.

Israelite Congress in Basilea

Dispatches from Paris say that Basilea will host an Israelite Congress toward the end of this month. It will propose the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine.

September 2, 1897. El Correo Gallego, year XX, number 6538, page 3.
tr. The Galician Mail, monarchist daily published in Ferrol.

The Jewish search for a homeland

Madrid, 1, 8:00 PM. A Jewish congress has been held in Switzerland where 50,000 attendees agreed to declare Palestine fatherland of the Jews and to channel their emigration thereto.

September 3, 1897. El Pensamiento Gallego, page 2.
tr. The Galician Thought, traditionalist Catholic daily, published in Santiago de Compostela.

Jewish Congress

Paris, 1. In the Jewish Congress verified in Switzerland 50,000 persons, between those present and those represented, have participated.

A program was crafted based on the declaration of Palestine as the fatherland of the Jews guarantied by public legal rights.

The Congress also agreed to channel the emigration of Jews toward Palestine, mainly of those able to dedicate themselves to agriculture.

The Jews aspire to organize themselves in harmony with the laws of "living" [i.e. developed] countries.

September 4, 1897. El Pensamiento Gallego, page 2.
tr. The Galician Thought, traditionalist Catholic daily, published in Santiago de Compostela.

Zionist Congress in Basel

The sessions of the Zionist congresss in Basel (Switzerland) have started. Israelites are called Zionists because they are descendants of Zion (Jerusalem).

The goal of this congress is to initiate a movement to procure with the guarantees of international law a fatherland for all Israelites who do not wish or can not live in their present environment.

Two hundred individuals from Europe and America attended the first session.

Mr. Hertz (sic) the Congress president propounds in a pamphlet entitled The Jewish State the foundation of two societies. One, the Society of Jews, will have, so to say, a purely moral and intellectual personality whereas the other, the Jewish Company, will be a financial and industrial society.

The Israelites in favour of the kingdom of Israel will of course rally round the Society of Jews, and if the world powers are disposed to grant the Jewish people sovereignty over a neutral territory, said society will select the country where a territory will be purchased.

Once the territory has been ceded—whether in Argentina or in Palestine is still unknown—the duty of all society members will be to get rid of all their non-portable assets and to congregate in the new Zion built to that effect.

This is Mr. Hertz's project who in his pamphlet covers and resolves in great detail all the difficulties that could be encountered.

September 5, 1897. Gaceta de Galicia, year XXVII, number 203, page 3.
tr. Galicia Gazette, published daily in Santiago de Compostela.

Protestant temple of Jerusalem

Madrid, 4, 5:00 PM. The Emperor of Germany will travel to Palestine next March to inaugurate the Protestant temple of Jerusalem.

September 7, 1897. El Lucense, year XIV, number 3802, page 2.
tr. The Lugonian, Catholic daily published in Lugo with ecclesiastical censorship.

The comic search for a Jewish homeland

As a comic note, if this section [Catholic World] admits of one, the funniest is the fanciful creation of the Israelite kingdom. First the Republic of Argentina was deemed a proper site, Baron Hirsch aspiring to become today's Maccabean. The Government of Buenos Aires did not want to dump the looming cargo of Jews on the Pampas, so the Banking kings next tried to purchase Palestine from Sultan Abdul-Hamid. Two hundred important Jews advocated this project at the Congress of Basilea; but the famous Max-Dordau (sic) the great observer of utopians and of the unbalanced, seeing that this project suits his studies, has pledged to follow it and survey all of its phases.

September 14, 1897. Gaceta de Galicia, year XXVII, number 209, page 2.
tr. Galicia Gazette, published in Santiago de Compostela.

The Pope and Palestine

Le Temps affirms that His Holiness has written a letter via diplomatic pouch to the Emperor of Turkey urging him, with singular force, to not cede Palestine to the Jews who purport to reconstitute the Hebrew nationality of Jerusalem using that route.1

1 The Pope at this time was Leo XIII. He ruled the Roman Catholic Church from 1878 to 1903.

September 21, 1897. El Lucense, year XIV, number 3813, page 2.
tr. The Lugonian, Catholic daily published in Lugo with ecclesiastical censorship.

The Pope and the Zionists

The Daily News asserts that the Pope wishes to confer with Monsignor Benetti the apostolic delegate in Turkey in order to obstruct the projects of the Zionists pertaining to the creation of the Israelite kingdom in Palestine.1 As we have said at other times the Holy See has no part in this an affair that seems chimerical to all sensible people.

1 The Pope was Leo XIII (to 1903).




The Jewish problem exists wherever Jews dwell in appreciable numbers. The immigrating Jews introduce it where it does not exist. We naturally migrate to places where we are not persecuted, but our appearance there sets off new persecutions. This is true and will remain so until the Jewish problem is resolved politically. It will spring up even in the developed countries, France is a case in point. Impoverished Jews bring antisemitism to England and they have already taken it to America (p. 29).

General Considerations

Nobody will deny the misery that burdens the life of the Jews. They are persecuted in all countries where they reside in appreciable numbers. Although equality of rights exists on paper, it is nullified in practice almost everywhere. Jews can not hope to reach mid-level ranks in the army, in government or in private-sector jobs. There are even attempts to drive them out of the marketplace, "Do not buy from the Jews!" (p. 37).1,2

In Russia the Jewish villages are sacked; in Romania individual Jews are murdered; in Germany they occasionally get beaten; in Austria the antisemites terrorize entire segments of public life; in Algeria preachers in favour of our expulsion crop up; in Paris the so-called high society turns inward and shuts its circles to Jews. The nuances are innumerable (p. 37).

Everywhere the malaise can be reduced to the classical phrase of the Berliner, "Out with the Jews!" (p. 38).

All the peoples that harbor Jews are without exception antisemites, ashamed or unashamed (p. 38).

All educated Jews without financial means espouse socialism. Hence the class struggle is waged on our backs because we occupy the most vulnerable spots in the capitalist and socialist camps (p. 38).

Our commoners become proletarian enemies of the ruling order and subordinate members of all the revolutionary parties.3 Meanwhile the fearsome power of money increases in our affluent classes (p. 42).

1 "They can not hope to reach mid-level ranks in the army": a veiled reference to the Dreyfus case. Wikipedia reference here.
2 "Do not buy from the Jews!" would become Nazi policy in 1933.
3 Trotsky, Zinoviev and Kamenev confirmed Herzl's statement.

III. The Jewish Company


The Jewish Company is partially patterned after the big colony companies; it is a chartered Jewish company, if you will. But it doesn't just watch over the exercise of sovereignty rights or pursue colonization ends only.

Like any other company the Jewish Company is founded upon an initial public offering compliant with British legislation and under the protection of England. Its headquarters shall be in London. I can not set down the amount of startup capital now. Our many financiers will fix it. But I will assume a startup capital of a thousand million German marks, in round figures. The fraction dedicated to investments at startup will depend on the manner of procuring the money; this question will be examined later.

The Jewish Company is a transitional institution. It is strictly a commercial venture that must always be at arm's length from the Society of Jews.1

The primary goal of the Jewish Company is to liquidate the real estate and other assets belonging to the emigrating Jews, such as houses and landholdings, and to cede the customer base of their local shops to the new owners. The procedure forestalls crises, ensures that everybody gets what is his, and facilitates the internal emigration of Christian citizens to the places of work and properties vacated by the departing Jews (p. 49).

1 Herzl conceived the Society of Jews as an advisory and probative body of experts.

IV. Local Units

Social welfare institutions

The question of social welfare institutions is very important for us because we have many panhandlers. Those with a weak character lapse easily into begging because the external pressure discourages them and the indulgent charity of the wealthy spoils them.

The Society of Jews with the help of local units will pay the greatest heed to people's education in this regard. This will generate a fertile ground for many associations that wither unnecessarily. Whoever simply shows goodwill shall be conveniently employed. Panhandlers will not be tolerated. Whoever refuses to work shall do it in the reformatory.

But we are against sending the elderly to retirement homes.

The retirement home is one of the crueller benefits that our kindness has devised. There an old person feels ashamed and humiliated until death. To be truthful, he is already interred. But as for us we wish to preserve their illusion of their utility until the end, even for those who are on the lowermost rungs of the intellect. Those who are incapable of doing physical work must be handed easier tasks. We must deal with the intellectually disabled poor of a generation that is already wilting. But the up-and-coming generations must be educated differently: in liberty and for the sake of liberty.

We shall endeavour to mete the moral happiness that comes from toil to all ages and orders of life. Thereby our people will retrieve their vigor in the country where the workday will be seven hours long (p. 74).

V. The Society of Jews and the Jewish State

Steward of the Jews

The Society of Jews is the central office of the incipient Jewish movement. It pursues scientific and political objectives. The foundation of the Jewish State, as I describe it, rests on modern and scientific groundwork. If we emigrated today from Egypt we could not do it in the same naive way of old. Previously we will assess our numbers and our strength. The Society of Jews is the modern Moses of the Jews. The undertaking of the ancient and great steward of the Jews is, compared to ours, what an admirable and ancient musical comedy is to modern opera. We stage the same melody with many, many more violins, flutes, harps, violonchelos, double basses, making use of electric lighting, props, choirs, magnificent stage machinery and lead singers (p. 86).


Perhaps someone ponders the difficulty of having more than one common language. However we can not speak Hebrew among ourselves. Who among us would use it to purchase a train ticket? No one can do it. Withal the matter is very simple. Everyone keeps his own language, the beloved fatherland of his intellect. Switzerland exemplifies the possibility of linguistic federalism conclusively. We will stay in the new country as we are now; we will never stop loving with melancholy our fatherlands from which we were expelled.1

We will leave behind the wilted and useless dialects, the idioms of the ghetto, the underground argot of captives.2 Our teachers will see to it. The language most often used in everyday life will become the principal one, without violence. The unity of our people is unique. Truly we recognize ourselves as members of the same people exclusively by the faith of our parents (p. 91).

1 Ukraine or Spain.
2 Nonetheless "dialects" that evolved a popular culture, identifying folklore, significant musical compositions and a flourishing literature simply refuse to lie down and die.


We don't have a flag. We need one. In order to lead many men one must raise an emblem aloft.

I contemplate a white ensign with seven golden stars. The white field symbolizes the purity of the new life; the stars represent the seven golden hours of our working day since the Jews head to their new country under the banner of labour (p. 92).

VI. Epilogue

I believe that the Jews will have, like any other nation, enemies enough. But they will not be dispersed over the entire world once they dwell in their own territory. The Diaspora can not be repeated as long as the entire culture of the world does not break down. And only an imbecile could fear such an outcome. The present culture counts on sufficient strengths to defend itself (p. 96).


February 10, 1896

Today I have read Leo Pinsker's Auto-emancipation on loan from Bloch.1 Admirable agreement with his parcel of criticism and much affinity with his constructive project. It is a great pity that I hadn't read this pamphlet before granting permission to print mine. And perhaps this turned out for the better because I would have forgone my book. I will speak about this publicly at the first opportunity and I will probably write an article in Zion on this very topic.2

1 Probably Joseph S. Bloch. Wikipedia biography here.
2 "Zion" was the title of a magazine published in Berlin from February 1895 onward.

April 21, 1896

Today I have wrapped up my letter to Nordau which I began writing yesterday.1 Baron Hirsch died yesterday or today in Hungary. I found out about it only one hour after sending my letter to Nordau which now I must annul telegraphically. Yet what a strange coincidence! The pamphlet was finished months ago and I sent it to everybody except Hirsch, and the day I decide to forward it to him, he dies. His participation would have contributed enormously to the success of our cause.

His disappearance is a great loss at any rate. Among the wealthy Jews he was the only one who wished to do something really major for the poor. Perhaps I did not behave well toward him. Perhaps I should have written Nordau two weeks sooner. Today our cause seems weaker because I never gave up the hope of winning Hirsch over.

1 Fellow Zionist Max Nordau (1849-1923).
2 Among many other philanthropic exploits Baron Hirsch (died on April 21, 1896) founded the Jewish Colonization Association responsible for the emigration of many Eastern European Jews to Argentina.

July 21, 1896

We must found a national association to reforest the country.1 Every Jew will subsidize the planting of at least one tree. Ten million trees!

1 Undertaken by the Jewish National Fund and its forestation project.

February 20, 1897

Jewish settlers and workers maintain good relations with Arabs and Kurds. The Arabs prefer a Jewish ruling to a trial in a Turkish court. The whole of Palestine talks about our national project because we are the historical landowners. Jews constitute the majority of the population in Jerusalem already. The climate is excellent and the soil not barren. Only on the mountains covered aforetime with fertile terraces has the rain washed out the humus of the fields.

September 3, 1897

If I wished to sum up the Basilea Congress with an adage I will take care to not state publicly, I'd say: "I have created the Jewish State in Basilea." If I spoke it aloud I would hear an explosion of universal laughter in response. But in five years, or at most fifty, everybody will admit it.

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4. Ziv Jabotinsky

Ziv Jabotinsky

Source: Wikipedia.

Ziv Jabotinsky (1880-1940) was a Zionist author and partisan. He joined the movement prior to the Kishinev pogrom of 1903. As more pogroms loomed, he created the Jewish Self-Defense Organization throughout Russia. He learned modern Hebrew and changed his name from Vladimir to Ziv ("Wolf"). He co-edited Yevreiskaya Zhyzn (Jewish Life) in 1904 and railed against assimilation and the Bund. In 1938 he advised European Jews to emigrate to Palestine as fast as possible. When Great Britain restricted Jewish immigration to Palestine in 1939 Jabotinsky first proposed an armed uprising against the British but subsequently offered them his collaboration at the outbreak of the Second World War. The mortal remains of Jabotinsky and his wife were moved to Israel in 1964. Full article here.


1898 - 1923

September 26, 1898. El Áncora, year II, number 349, page 2.
tr. The Anchor, Catholic daily published in Pontevedra.

Annual congress of the Jews in Basilea

Delegates of the 5 or 6 million Jews, five sixths of whom inhabit Russia, Poland, Galicia and Romania, have attended the second Zionist Congress and decided to create an international Jewish bank with an initial capital of 50 millions [currency unspecified] to procure the colonization of Palestine and Syria. The base of operation will be in London.

August 30, 1899. El Diario de Pontevedra, year XVI, number 4589, page 1.
tr. The Pontevedra Daily, doyen of the press of this capital.

Jewish colonization of Palestine and Cyprus

Our readers will already know that the Jews are trying to get from the Sultan of Turkey territories in Palestine and Syria in order to colonize them.

It is really no easy matter.

Some dignitaries of Yildiz Palace appear favourably disposed to the Zionist plan and have pointed out to the sovereign major economic advantages that the State would obtain with the planned colonization.

In order to improve their chances the Zionists have excluded the city of Jerusalem and its environs from their petition for these have very sacred character for Christians and the inclusion could stir scruples in the Sultan's mind who does not want to upset the foreign powers interested in the preservation of Jerusalem's traditional significance.

However other counsellors of the Turkish sovereign oppose the idea of the Jews and do not leave off affirming that a restoration of the ancient Jewish kingdom poses a serious peril to the empire. These counsellors are apparently the ones who hold sway in Yildiz.

The Zionists also pretend to colonize the Island of Cyprus.

The British government will not oppose the idea if the country accepts it, i.e., if the Cypriots do not oppose the Jewish immigration, because otherwise disorders could break out, a prospect the government of London wishes to avert at all costs.

Antisemitism is as unknown in Cyprus as it is in Greece where the Jews enjoy total freedom and live in perfect equality with their fellow Christian citizens.

Hence the Cypriots will probably accept the influx of some thousands of Jews, but it is inconceivable that they will tolerate a massive influx because the Jews together with the Muslim population could completely erase the present character of the Island, which is essentially Greek.

February 14, 1900. El Diario de Pontevedra, year XVII, number 4797, page 2.
tr. The Pontevedra Daily, doyen of the press of this capital.

The Jews in Palestine

The number of Jews in Palestine is 80,000; their standard of living is miserable. They make up half the population of Jerusalem where they make a humble living as handicraftsmen selling their handiworks, to which must be added the alms of European donors.

The Jews have twenty-five agricultural colonies covering some 25,000 hectares (97 square miles) of land on which dwell 5,000 Jews. They attend primary and adult schools that outwardly imitate their European counterparts.

Libraries, public conferences, concerts and staged plays nourish an intellectual culture. Three Hebrew newspapers that instruct settlers on farming techniques are published in Jerusalem.

Hebrew is spoken in the Jewish colonies; concurrently French is very widely spoken.

June 6, 1900. Gaceta de Galicia, year XXX, number 123, page 1.
tr. Galicia Gazette, published daily in Santiago de Compostela.

A German Post Office in Palestine

The trip to Jerusalem made not long ago by the German emperor is bearing the expected fruits, i.e., the expansion of and boost to German interests in Palestine.

To begin with, a German Post Office has been erected without the express sanction of the Ottoman government.

August 30, 1900. El Diario de Pontevedra, year XVII, number 4887, pages 1-2.
tr. The Pontevedra Daily, doyen of the press of this capital.

The London Congress--What do Zionists want?--What are they?--Origin of the movement

The [Fourth] Zionist Congress opened a few days ago in London with two thousand people in attendance and with the participation of six hundred delegates from all nations, especially from Russia.

Speakers Herzl and Max-Nordau delivered outstanding speeches. Max-Nordau made the apology of [German] Emperor Wilhelm II as a protector of Judaism.

The Zionist objective is to create a Jewish society through legal immigration and also to transform its economic profile, i.e., to evolve a hard-working people engaged in farming and industry out of a collective of merchants dispersed all over the world.

Zionists do not conform a political party. One may be a Zionist and enroll in any political party; Zionism embraces all factions. As a rule Zionists are impoverished or oppressed individuals or adherents to the inspiration of Judaism.

What gave rise to this kind of modern religion?

Prominent Zionist figures explain it this way,

The Jewish people have not forgotten their ancient fatherland, evidence of past greatness and might. The memories of Jerusalem and of Zion's mountains embody the bedrock of their faith. Around 1860 to 1870 Israel inclined to renounce its past when several European nations granted Israel's children the rights accorded the rest of the citizenry. But antisemitism erupted full of threats, and this impelled Israel to mind the ancient traditions once more and to recognize the error of not having established a bastion or a center 1,800 years ago and of not having earned the trust and respect of all other nations.

"This historical error must be amended," said several Jews. But how? By returning to the land, by retaking the forsaken fatherland. This is what Zionists want to accomplish.

They have spread out and taken root in Austria, England, North America, the Balkans, Gemany, France and Switzerland, and they rely on more than thirty periodicals to expound their ideals.

The prime movers and shakers of the Zionist movement are the aforementioned doctors Theodor Herzl and Max-Nordau. Both convened the first Congress at Basle in August 1897, the second which met at the same location in 1898 and the current one in London.

The movement has since grown. Societies were founded, newspapers started, countless subscriptions arrive continually at the National Bank of Vienna. Subscribers pay a monthly fee of one Hebrew coin worth one French Franc.

The balance of these subscriptions goes to amass a target capital of 250 million Francs, which is the price fixed by Turkey for the cession of Palestine to the Zionists.

A Zionist is a sort of modern Mason minus the extravagant ceremonies. It is an undeniable fact that he strengthens with each passing day.

With that fact in mind and given the primacy of the Semite problem in Europe we saw fit to write the present article.

March 20, 1902. Boletín oficial eclesiástico del Obispado de Lugo, year XXX, number 8, pages 113-14.
tr. Official ecclesiastical bulletin of the Bishopric of Lugo.

Brief of H. H. Pope Leo XIII granting indulgence to the first Spanish pilgrimage to the Holy Land

With sweet solace we have received the news that the Workers' Patronage which, under the care of St. Vincent de Paul, exists in that city of Bilbao and which is preparing a holy pilgrimage from Cantabria to Palestine for the purpose of visiting those Holy Places sanctified with the divine Blood of Jesus Christ and of manifesting there the enormous love they profess for their Divine Redeemer by doing penance together and reciting prayers for his love.1

Being well acquainted with the copious and well-seasoned fruits of Religion and piety that have always been harvested by the French pilgrimages conducted by the Augustine Fathers of the Assumption, we have felt enormous joy at seeing Spaniards combining efforts to undertake such a fruitful and holy endeavour.

Who knows if, on witnessing these very noble examples, all the other Christian nations will feel compelled, as it were, to vie in assembling at the sepulchre of mankind's Redeemer, to render him fealty and adoration!

1 The accompanying footnote lists the pilgrims' itinerary. Departure from Bilbao on April 1. Board a special train for the trip to Barcelona and embark a "magnificent" ocean liner for the voyage across the Mediterranean Sea to Haifa, arriving on April 7. The organizers booked the ocean liner, Alfonso XIII (l. 1889, d. 1915). Leisurely visits to Carmel Temple, its famous monastery, the grottos of Elijah and Elisha, Nazareth, Mount Tabor, Lake Tiberius, Magdala, Caphernaum, Bethsaida, the river Jordan and the Mount of Blessings. On April 14 embark for an overnight Haifa to Jaffa cruise. Visit Jaffa, ride the one and only Palestinian railway to Jerusalem. Visit the various shrines over the next nine days. Back in Jaffa embark for Port-Said (Egypt) and visit that city and Cairo. On April 29 sail to Naples (Europe) for a very deliberate tour of that city. On May 5 arrival in Rome for an audience with the Pope. On May 9 sail back to Barcelona. Prices, all expenses covered, were as follows. First Class: 2,250 Pesetas, Second Class: 1,550 Pesetas, Third Class: 500 Pesetas. Note: 1 USD ≅ 5 Pesetas in the year 1900.

May 2, 1902. Boletín oficial eclesiástico del Obispado de Lugo, year XXX, number 12, pages 179-190.
tr. Official ecclesiastical bulletin of the Bishopric of Lugo.

The pilgrimage to the Holy Land. Diary of a pilgrim (extracts)

Tuesday April 1.

On a Barcelona pier two hundred and twenty-six pilgrims embark the magnificent English steamer, Midnight Sun [l. 1874, d. 1912]. The bishops of Lugo and Astorga are among the passengers. The Most Eminent Cardinal of Barcelona came briefly aboard to bless the vessel. We sail away singing the popular Salve Regina on a gorgeous sea slightly ruffled by the wind.

Wednesday April 2.

Shortly after waking up we exited the cabins for the deck and became acquainted with the daily schedule on board. Masses every hour. 7:30 AM, first half of the Rosary. 8:00 AM, breakfast. 11:00 AM, second half of the Rosary. 11:30 AM, one hour allotted for removing personal effects from the ship's hold. 12:30 PM, lunch. 4:00 PM, tea. 5:00 PM, Vía Crucis and homily. 7:00 PM, Rosary and blessing. 7:30 PM, dinner. 10:00 PM, lights-out. There was also a notice that said, "The concerts will be held after lunch and after dinner."

This morning many passengers get seasick.

On the deck at 3:00 PM the white hats we must wear for the excursions in Palestine were handed out.

After dinner the ship's captain dropped in for the evening concert. The emcee greeted him with the traditional British catchphrase, "Three cheers for the captain: Hip, hip, hip" and the auditorium answered enthusiastically, "Hurrah!" The sextet then played the British national anthem to loud applause at the end.

Following the concert the captain, gratified and visibly moved, addressed us with these words which I translate literally,

I am very grateful for the attentions you have showered upon me, and I take the opportunity to welcome you aboard this good steamer, the Midnight Sun. I also take advantage of the occasion to congratulate the ladies and gentlemen who were brave enough to come down to the salon in such great numbers, giving me well founded hopes that upon our arrival to Haifa you will all debark like veritable mariners. Now, in reciprocity to your courtesy, I beg you to let me hear your national anthem to show my gratitude.

Tuesday April 8.

No one was able to sleep soundly. Before 3:00 AM people begin to gather on the deck. A completely starry sky. The Haifa lighthouse can be glimpsed in the distance. Disembarkation proceeds swiftly thanks to our admirable orderliness praised by everyone watching. Upon landing everybody kissed the ground.

We immediately went to visit the Latin parish church and later we traversed the idyllic plain of Haifa along magnificent roads.

We climbed Mount Carmel on foot and lunched at the Abdala Tower. A Turkish band conducted by a Carmelite Father played the Royal March of Spain and the March of St. Ignatius which is the hymn adopted by the pilgrimage. Both elicited warm applause. After lunch we visited the Carmel and later descended for the road trip to Nazareth.

We crossed Haifa and entered the plain of Acre. We skirted Mount Carmel and passed through the prairie of Esdraelon whose fertility we marvelled at. On the way we stopped to drink an orange refreshment. In the evening we passed by the land of the Zebedees where a church stands built by Spaniards. As night fell we arrived to Nazareth.

After visiting the Church of the Annunciation we ate dinner together underneath a huge canvas, everyone in superb humour. Then we retired to sleep in Casa Nova, in the convents of St. Joseph or of the Apparition, in the German Hotel or in the Hotel of Nazareth.

Thursday April 10.

We rode on horses and donkeys from Nazareth to Mount Tabor. The sights along the route are undescribable for their variety, and I would fill a whole book with them.

Mount Tabor is gorgeous, nay, more than gorgeous. Many would have liked to put up tents there, like St. Peter, and never come down.

We toured the ruins of the ancient Benedictine convent, the Crusader fortresses and Josephus' bulwarks.

At length we remounted our steeds. After a short while we chanced upon a caravan of 1,300 Russian pilgrims who, with their popes at the head, were starting the climb. What an admirable and uplifting spectacle: men and women, most walking, carrying their clothes and food, seeking the shade of the trees, and with affection watching us pass them by, yes, as we did, despite observing a different religion. After all we were going to honour the same God! How much we who travel with so many comforts must admire those unhappy souls! May God touch the hearts of those unfortunate ones and may the days of unity arrive quickly!

Friday April 11.

Tiberias! Two Masses were celebrated concurrently, at the parish church of the Franciscan Fathers and in the adjoining small Greek church. In this last one, apparently poor, a fence separates the men and the women.

After either Mass the pilgrims spilled over the village. They visited the Mosque, full of cheer this being a Friday, the Synagogue, whose Rabbis showed us magnificent manuscripts of the sacred books conserved in rolled-up parchments, the Greek church, the Bazar, the Marketplace, etc.

We lunched at 11:00 AM and then sailed the sea of Galilee in a flotilla of barges which split up into autonomous parties.

The sea of Galilee lies two hundred meters below sea level. It was flat, beautiful and gorgeous as we put out to sea, and the voyage to Caphernaum was very enjoyable indeed, but before the return there arose a strong wind which did not let the last nine barges of another flotilla moor. Remembering the Apostles' "Save us, Lord!" incident, it was thought prudent to have all barges sail together to Bethsaida's wharf and step off there. So it was done, and after various autonomous sorties on land some pilgrims walked back to Tiberias while others rode horseback.

Sunday April 13.

After lunch in Tiberias we boarded cars and headed back to Haifa. The trip that had taken us six hours coming now took three and a half going because the drive is downslope and because the heat of previous days had slackened. As soon as we arrived in Haifa we embarked with all orderliness and happiness.

We stay anchored facing Carmel until ten o'clock. Pilgrims pray the Rosary in groups scattered over the deck or spend the time writing to their families.

May 10, 1902. Boletín oficial eclesiástico del Obispado de Lugo, year XXX, number 13, pages 195-207.
tr. Official ecclesiastical bulletin of the Bishopric of Lugo.

The pilgrimage to the Holy Land. Diary of a pilgrim (extracts)

Monday April 14.

El Eco Franciscano, February 1, 1912

At 4:30 AM the Midnight Sun anchored near Jaffa's shore. The official welcoming boats and others hired to transfer us to dry land started arriving as soon as the sun shone upon us. It is said that Jaffa's boatmen are the best sailors in the world, and so they must be, to weave their way through the countless rocks sticking out of the water or awash that enclose the harbour. We did not have to go through Customs and at 7:00 AM all pilgrims gathered in the parish church of the Franciscan Fathers. These treated us later to a magnificent lunch in the mess hall of their convent, a welcome respite from campground chow. After lunch the pilgrims divided and boarded two trains bound for Jerusalem a quarter of an hour apart. We took the first one.

We were welcomed at Jerusalem's railway station by the Consul General of Spain, the Communities of the Franciscan Fathers and the Sisters of the Holy Rosary together with their schoolgirls. The railway station is located far from the village. As soon as the second train arrived we formed a procession headed by four janissaries in their showy uniforms (photograph to the right) followed by the Spanish flag, the ladies in double row, the gonfalon of the pilgrimage, the gentlemen, the priests and the prelates, the Consul General and the director. The procession went singing psalms, the Rosary and the Litany of the Saints. At length it entered Jerusalem through the Jaffa Gate while an immense crowd watched us.

Tuesday April 15.

After eating breakfast in Casa Nova, the ones who lodged there, and in Our Lady of France those lodging with the Assumptionist Fathers, we headed out in groups to tour àu touriste, as it were, the Holy Sepulchre, its sanctuaries and offices.

It's a painful truth: nothing there is attractive except the site's holiness and its reminiscences. One can not conceive a greater neglect, filth or lack of reverence for the holiest place on earth.

As a byproduct of the status quo set by the Powers no bolt may be used, stone displaced or aught restored. Consequently the vaults shell, the walls grime and the tiles chip. The moral impression is as painful as the material one, for the Orientals enter and leave with covered head as is their custom; some smoke, others chat, many lie sprawled about on the floor, discussions and colloquies go on; the Greeks set up booths for selling religious souvenirs, wax, etc.

After lunch all the pilgrims gathered for the visit to Mount Moriah. It's impossible to convey the impression caused by the magnificent and marvelous mosque with its wealth of features. All hearts sank on comparing the majesty of the Al-Aqsa Mosque to the squalor of the Holy Sepulchre Basilica.

Girls of Bethlehem

We visited the orchard of Gethsemane, property of the Franciscan Fathers who turned it into a precious garden, and the spots where the apostles slept, Judas gave the kiss of betrayal and where St. Stephen was stoned to death. On this last location we had to walk between rows of disgusting lepers who aroused everyone's compassion.

Wednesday April 16.

At 6:45 AM all the pilgrims had gathered for the drive to the poetic village of Bethlehem. We were distributed among some fifty cars. On the way we passed by the monastery of St. Elijah, property of the schismatic Greeks. From its heights one can contemplate the lovely village of Bethlehem off to one side, and off to the other the domes, minarets and towers of the deicidal city. We arrived in Bethlehem at 8:00 AM.

Thursday April 17.

At an hour as early as yesterday's we drove off from Jerusalem to "St. John of the Mountain" [Ein Karem].

The drive lasted forty-five minutes. Our first visit was to the sanctuary of the Franciscan Fathers. The coat of arms of Castile & León tops the arched entrance to the church and embroiders the chasuble of officiating priests also.

Upon our arrival a Mass was celebrated and the Benedictus sung.

After visiting St. John's Chapel we removed to the dining hall of the Fathers where they served us an appetizing lunch with the affection of Franciscans and of Spaniards. It's so delightful to discover here, a thousand leagues away from the fatherland and on these Holy Places, an essentially Spanish nook where all hearts beat in unison and all tongues speak the same language!

After completing our tour of the sanctuaries we returned to Jerusalem at 3:00 PM, ruefully leaving so Spanish a corner behind.

Friday April 18.

Gorgeous day! At 7:00 AM solemn Mass. At 9:00 AM we did the Via Crucis along the Way of Bitterness [Via Dolorosa] carrying the two hefty crosses of the pilgrimage upon our shoulders. We did the first station in what is actually the yard of the Turkish garrison. How much could anticlerical Spaniards learn from the Turkish Muslims! There, as along Bitterness Street, not only we were not harassed but actually met with all kinds of courtesy and respect.

After lunch we went to the spot where the Jews weep, and we found a great number of them who, book in hand, recited their lamentations, foreheads resting on the colossal stones the remnant of Solomon's construction works.

Once in the Jewish quarter we visited the two best synagogues of Jerusalem, the German one and the Spanish one.

At 7:00 PM we congregated upon Calvary. We heard a sermon and sang Ledesma's Stabat Mater aided by the sextet of the pilgrimage.

It is incumbent to pay homage to our female pilgrims. Neither the weight of the two crosses which they bore with respect and joy, nor the intensity of the searing sun, nor the press at Calvary where no seating space was to be had, nor the fast, nor the silence, could overwhelm their strong and pious nature, and today they are cheerful and content, satisfied with what they did and willing to do much more. As the Prelates said, one can go to the end of the world with someone who always wears a smile and has a merry soul.

Saturday April 19.

The morning was left free for pilgrims to do as they wished. For this motive Jerusalem's central neighbourhoods were full of life and the white veils of our hats and the red bows on our arms were visible everywhere.

At 11:00 AM we came together for lunch, and at 12 noon we departed Jerusalem for a two-day trip to the Jordan River and to the Dead Sea, sleeping overnight in Jericho.

We crossed the Desert of Judea by car and made a stopover at Khan el Ahmar the site of the parable of the Good Samaritan.

We also paused briefly on a hill to contemplate the picturesque Greek Monastery of St. George suspended 'twixt heaven and abyss in the midst of the desert's solitude.

With the afternoon half spent we reached the small hamlet of Jericho, crossed it and went to Elisha's Fountain where we refreshed ourselves a bit although the heat on this day was, to be truthful, quite bearable.

We parked the cars by Elisha's Fountain and walked to the "Mount of the Forty Days" [The Mount of the Temptations] which we climbed with much vigor despite the abruptness and steepness of the rise in order to visit the very curious Greek monastery encompassing the cave where Our Lord fasted. From its height we contemplated the immense plain of the Jordan. The Greek monks gifted us with a refreshment.

We descended the Mount of the Forty Days, walked back to Elisha's Fountain, boarded the cars and returned to Jericho where we installed ourselves in these four hotels, Gilgal, Bellevue, Jordan and Du Care. We dined together and immediately afterward we retired for the night, for tomorrow we must get up very early.

Sunday April 20.

It is better to omit the bad experiences, so I will not dwell on the overnight stay when all the individuals of the annoying Palestinian fauna had their rendezvous in every hotel room of Jericho. The mosquito nets and the exhaustion we felt proved worthless against an inhospitable swarm that left us with a souvenir of inexpungible itching and smarting.

Jordan River on the Syrian borderland

Thanks be given that the wake-up call came at 3:00 AM and that half an hour later we departed in the cars by way of the Jordan under a very lovely starry heaven.

The way of the Jordan, if it can be so dubbed, was the worst. Jolts, lurches, tosses and swallowing dust, we arrived at length to a delicious spot on the bank of the River Jordan where we heard Mass and had a most picturesque picnic-style breakfast. Afterward some pilgrims leisurely cruised the historical river on the only existent ferryboat.

After everybody had finished their breakfast we drove to the Dead Sea without feeling the sweltering heat that usually prevails at those depths but relishing instead a very nice temperature. Hence the aspect of the Dead Sea did not give us the sad impression which so many travellers report having received. However life and vegetation are indeed absent there. Over the entire breadth of the sea only one barge was visible. It flew the Turkish flag, carried salt and had been hauled there recently.

We lunched at 10:30 AM under the tent and then drove back to Jerusalem along the same route in reverse of the day before. It was getting hot by now and some fatigue set in. Still different cars on returning stopped at different places for different lengths of time.

At twilight all pilgrims gathered in Casa Nova, including the dozen or so who had opted out of the expedition to the Dead Sea, which really does not compensate for the nuisances it brings even if we happened to have very good luck.

May 20, 1902. Boletín oficial eclesiástico del Obispado de Lugo, year XXX, number 14, pages 218-224.
tr. Official ecclesiastical bulletin of the Bishopric of Lugo.

The pilgrimage to the Holy Land. Diary of a pilgrim (extracts)

Monday April 21.

It rained until 7:00 AM. Some pilgrims qualified the cool temperature brought by the rain as genuine cold.

The final religious ceremonies held at the Church of the Saviour ended with the imposition of the Cross devised by His Holiness for Holy Land pilgrims. The rest of the day was left free.

After the 5:00 PM dinner a good-sized number of pilgrims attended the official reception given by the Spanish Consul General in the salons of the New Hotel to mark our pilgrimage. The whole diplomatic corps of Jerusalem was there. The fiesta ended after midnight.

Tuesday April 22.

Early in the morning we walked up the Mount of Olives to the fiesta honouring the emplacement of a plaque with the Our Father prayer engraved in the Basque language [euskera]. Although the plaque had in fact not arrived the fiesta went ahead anyway. D. Román Pagoaha preached in euskera the solemn Mass celebrated inside Pater Chapel.

After the 10:00 AM lunch we headed out in procession to the railway station. Farewell, Jerusalem! With what sadness we have left you, many to never again see you, and the majority with the intention of visiting you once more before dying!

We departed Jerusalem at noon aboard two special trains that took us to the seashore in three hours. Embarkment on the Midnight Sun proceeded immediately.

Tuesday May 6 to Friday May 9.

Fairly strong gale, very rough seas. The waves sweep over the deck but fortunately the Midnight Sun is a "good steamer" and our captain an expert mariner.

Saturday May 10.

We arrived to Barcelona. Once more in the fatherland, after so long a pilgrimage.

September 1, 1902. El Áncora, year VI, number 1492, page 2.
tr. The Anchor, Catholic daily published in Pontevedra.

The Sultan and the Jews

Vienna, 30. A telegraph from Constantinople informs that the Jewish patriarch Dr. Herzl has entered into negotiations with the Sultan of Turkey for the purchase of Palestine with the aim of establishing there an Israelite Republic under the protection of Turkey whose troops would keep ensuring, as they do presently, freedom of worship in Jerusalem for every religion.

October 20, 1902. El Áncora, year VI, number 1533, page 3.
tr. The Anchor, Catholic daily published in Pontevedra.

Cholera in Palestine

According to reports from Palestine cholera is causing many victims in Jaffa and Gaza and spreading to other towns.

November 5, 1902. El Áncora, year VI, number 1546, page 2.
tr. The Anchor, Catholic daily published in Pontevedra.

Cholera in Palestine (II)

Paris, 3. Telegrams from Jerusalem inform that the authorities have scattered widely, abandoning their posts, due to the cholera epidemic.

There is a dearth of medical aids and basic goods.

Over the past week 494 deaths were registered in Gaza, 70 in Lydda and 5 in Jaffa.

April 7, 1903. Boletín Oficial de la Provincia de Lugo, year 1903, number 78, page 1.
tr. Official bulletin of the province of Lugo.

General Directorate of Health

According to the communication received from the Consul of Spain in Jerusalem, dated March 10, the requisite of a medical check-up imposed in Beirut for persons arriving from Jaffa and Damascus has been discontinued, thus vanishing the last of the sanitary measures adopted as a consequence of the past cholera epidemic in Palestine and Syria.

January 11, 1904. Boletín oficial eclesiástico del Obispado de Lugo, year XXXII, number 1, page 16.
tr. Official ecclesiastical bulletin of the Bishopric of Lugo.

Second Basque Pilgrimage to Palestine (General Conditions)

Article 4. If discipline and respect to the Authority are requisites for every large gathering, they become essential on a journey like ours which, in addition to the discomforts expected of a long-drawn-out trip involving some 400 persons, will confront also the grave deficit of communications, lodgings and nourishment extant in Palestine. This may spur the taking of swift decisions on the spot. Moreover the Asian climate with its sudden changes may impose restrictions on the avoidance of certain drinks, on the going out at certain hours, etc., etc. In this manner it will be necessary to dictate and enforce many precepts which would seem trivial and overblown in other circumstances. Every pilgrim then pledges to respect and obey all the directives issued by the Organizing Committee. Failure to do so may impel the Committee to discard the pilgrim anywhere along the journey and to cancel the contract.

January 17, 1905. El Correo de Galicia, year VI, number 1236, page 3.
tr. The Mail of Galicia, independent daily of notices and news with ecclesiastical censorship, published in Santiago de Compostela.

Jewish parliamentarian insults Roman Catholicism

A Jewish member of the German Parliament erupted in insults toward the Catholic Religion but the President called him to order saying that since the great proportion of the Chamber was Christian he would not brook having their religious feelings hurt in any way.

March 28, 1905. El Correo de Galicia, year VI, number 1293, page 3.
tr. The Mail of Galicia, independent daily of notices and news with ecclesiastical censorship, published in Santiago de Compostela.

Jewish kamekaze

Madrid, 28, 11:00 AM. An elegantly dressed individual entered a Warsaw police station as the service was being distributed among the policemen and lobbed a bomb at them. The bomb detonated causing terrible damage. Seventeen policemen were hurt, some very seriously. The author of the crime was himself injured and imprisoned. He turned out to be a Jew.

August 24, 1905. El Correo de Galicia, year VI, number 1411, page 2.
tr. The Mail of Galicia, independent daily of notices and news with ecclesiastical censorship, published in Santiago de Compostela.

Infernal machines

A dispatch out of New York informs of a case mooted in all circles.

Jewish banker Jacob Schiff 1, associate of Kuhn, Loeb & Co., who recently visited Witte 2 in order to hand him a document summarizing the grievances of Russian Jews, went off to Boston some days ago leaving the banking house employees with the task of opening all his business correspondence.

Yesterday said employees received an odd parcel of small size but considerable weight which aroused everyone's suspicion.

The addressee on the mailing label was Jacob Schiff.

The employees unwrapped the parcel cautiously and once opened they observed full of amazement and terror that it consisted of an infernal machine set to explode upon the slightest bump.

Almost concurrently a similar scene played out at the Guggenheim & Sons banking house, Jewish also. The employees of that house as well received and opened a packet hiding a machine inside resembling the one sent to Jacob Schiff.

The police is actively looking for the authors of these mysterious shipments.

After analysis it was determined that had these infernal machines detonated they would have blown up the buildings where both Jewish banks are housed.

1 Jacob Schiff (1847–1920) was an American banker, businessman and philanthropist. Wikipedia biography here.
2 Sergei Witte (1849–1915) was a Russian count who presided over the first State Duma (April to July, 1906). Wikipedia biography here.

October 6, 1905. El Correo de Galicia, year VI, number 1449, page 1.
tr. The Mail of Galicia, independent daily of notices and news with ecclesiastical censorship, published in Santiago de Compostela.

The Jews in Palestine

The legendary Wandering Jew, the hapless Ahasuerus,1 is the hallmark of the Jewish people sentenced after their fearsome crime of deicide to abide on earth without reconstituting their lost nationality.

Howbeit this stubborn people does not forsake its golden dream of a new Jewish Jerusalem like the one Roman emperor Titus conquered after a very cruel war.

El Eco Franciscano, March 15, 1909

We believe that the readers of "El Correo de Galicia" will view with pleasure these curious data concerning the efforts of the Zionist Jews. We translate and extract them from La Libre Parole.2

The Jews call themselves thrice French in France, thrice German in Germany and thrice British in Great Britain. Withal they maintain an indelible commitment to their race everywhere and stay Jewish over everything else.

The efforts made in modern times to rebuild a Jewish nationality (setting aside the failed attempts initiated already by Julian the Apostate3 ) hearken back to the year 1850 with the creation of the Alliance Israélite Universelle.

Even before the creation of that society named Alliance Crémieux,4 Montefiore 5 and other leaders of Judaism toured several countries to pick a territory for their future kingdom of Israel.

They toured Egypt, Palestine and Syria.

Since then the Hebrews, faithful to their favourite tactics, have not ceased doing the underground stealthy work of moles. First they went around purchasing homesteads and thereafter entire Arab hamlets, so that presently they are the owners of almost all Palestine.

A society with a start-up capital of 50 million French Francs and with a branch each in Jerusalem, Jaffa and Haifa, finances this invasion.6

The Jews dominate the cities. Out of Jerusalem's 120,000 inhabitants 100,000 are Jews; 23,000 out of 30,000 in Jaffa and 9,000 out of 10,000 in Tiberias.

1 "Ahasuerus" was a name given to the Wandering Jew. Wikipedia article here.
2 "La Libre Parole" was a French antisemitic newspaper published in Paris from 1892 to 1924. Full article here.
3 Julian the Apostate ruled Rome from AD 355 to 363. Biography here.
4 Adolphe Crémieux (1796-1880) was a French lawyer, politician and president of the Alliance Israélite Universelle. Wikipedia biography here.
5 Moses Montefiore (1784-1885) was a British banker who donated large sums of money to develop the economy, education and health care of Eastern Mediterranean Jews. Wikipedia biography here.
6 This society was the embryo of Bank Leumi. Short history here.

December 14, 1905. El Correo de Galicia, year VI, number 1506, page 1.
tr. The Mail of Galicia, independent daily of notices and news with ecclesiastical censorship, published in Santiago de Compostela.

Persecution of the Jews

The 8 million Jews scattered all over the world endure continuous persecution; yesterday the antisemitic protest in France triggered by the Dreyfus trial, today the cruel massacres of Israelites in Russia. As a result the movement started by the Congress of Basilea in 1898 to revive the ancient kingdom of Zion keeps growing.

But this idea will not come to fruition—laying aside the biblical curse—because the Sultan of Turkey opposes the sale of Palestine and because the major Jewish capitalists headed by Rothschild 1 refuse to leave the European and American centers of commerce where they do business and to remove to a desolate region with an uncertain future.

1 The Rothschild family is a wealthy Jewish noble banking family that originated in Frankfurt in the 1760s. The father of the Rothschild dynasty bequeathed his wealth to his sons who established themselves in London, Paris, Frankfurt, Vienna and Naples. Wikipedia article here.

January 3, 1906. El Correo Gallego, year XXIX, number 9311, page 3.
tr. The Galician Mail, doyen of the local press published in Ferrol.

Against the pogroms of Russia

Rome, 1. A Committee of 20 senators and 40 parliamentarians of every political stripe, including several ex-ministers, published yesterday a manifesto protesting the Russian massacres and the fierce persecution of the Jews.

The manifesto states that the whole of Italy, without distinction of religious ideal, political or social, deplores unanimously the pain of the offended humankind and joins the protests of the entire civilized world.

January 11, 1906. El Correo Gallego, year XXIX, number 9318, page 2.
tr. The Galician Mail, doyen of the local press published in Ferrol.

Against the massacre of Jews

London, 9. The assembly of a large meeting presided by the archbishop of Westminster moved a motion to protest the massacres of Jews in Russia and to beseech the British Government to influence its Russian counterpart in a friendly manner for the reestablishment of calm.

January 30, 1906. El Correo Gallego, year XXIX, number 9334, page 1.
tr. The Galician Mail, doyen of the local press published in Ferrol.

The Jews

Really pitiable is the situation of Jews everywhere. The hatred nourished against them by the fanatical Christians of the Middle Ages based in the belief that the death of the Crucified had to be avenged on them has hardly disappeared with the passing of the centuries, and today the ill-starred Jews are still victims of the cruel mob, of a most inhumane persecution.

Arab hurly-burlies, Armenian raids, Russia's revolutionary outbursts, the abuses of unruly Turkish soldiers, the Royalist spasms of France, all these prefer to comb the raggedy Jewish race for victims, and so Jewish blood runs for petty or looney reasons without the Christian Governments striving to guarantee the security of this portion of their subjects which, incidentally, is far from representing a drawback to the progress or to the revenue of those countries where it dwells.

If Jews were to feel some day the fire of vengeance coursing through their veins, if they were to flame with the desire for retaliation and set up centres of resistance, the conflicts they could vex feeble or bloodthirsty European governments with would not be small fry.

Because it is vital to inform those who still ignore it that five and a half million Jews (no less!) live in Europe, distributed by country as follows.1

The disinherited race does not live just in the countries of Europe under the protection of laws that safeguard the life, prosperity and serenity of all men on an equal basis, natives or aliens. Additionally some hundreds of thousands of Jews, faithful guardians of the Old Testament, dwell in Asia, in Africa and even in America.

There are 300,000 Israelites in Asia distributed as follows.

The figures for Africa are these.1

The number of Hebrews living in America does not surpass 250,000.

The above data come from a Hebrew statistical report and stand therefore well grounded.

Hence some seven million Jews are dispersed all over the world, enough to constitute a non-petty state.

And yet, disseminated all over the world, lamenting the vanished splendours, existing almost by a miracle, suffering all sorts of abuse and contempt, the Jews live out a sad life of silent oppression under the dominion of Christianity or of Islam, both of which hate them unto death. One solace alone does the Hebrew find in his fate: the acquisition of as much wealth as possible, and to that end, he brings into play his feline patience, his insatiable ambition, his perseverance and doggedness against all odds, as if he wished through this course of action to take revenge for all the offenses, the vexations, the prejudices he receives from the enemies of his race continually...

Spain, once the genuine haven of Jews during the Middle Ages, is presently the nation that hosts the fewest for having been Jews the target of the rigurous expulsion in the monarchy of the Catholic Kings. Withal the descendants of Spanish Jews stay faithful to the language their forefathers spoke as well as to the beliefs they professed, and so in France, in Italy or in Austria one can easily discern among the Hebrew constituent those Jews still tabbed Spanish.

It is high time for that animosity toward the Israelites to disappear because it shames the civilized countries that still feel it. France, being a republic, revindicates the hegemony of individual and collective liberty and wants to show its love and goodwill toward the race exiled from its own fatherland, and so French Israelites have their grand synagogue in Paris, and so several among them are creditors of the French State to the tune of several million francs; but this is merely gloss on the surface of officialdom because the French from every social class loathe the Jew and bait him tyrannically when they chance upon a Dreyfus, guilty or innocent.

A few years ago a group of Israelites conceived the beautiful yet challenging problem of attempting a multitudinous return to their ancient fatherland, Judea the forsaken, but this is purely a platonic ideal, as platonic as continuing to await Messiah's arrival.

Not a few hurdles hinder this just and reasonable project. Palestine is in the hands of its latest conquerors, the Turks; the countries with a large Jewish constituency will not let their Jews depart because of the vigour and wealth they contribute, and the creation of a state plus the apportioning of a territory as broad as seven million inhabitants stand in need of is an endeavour bristling with bloody conflicts.

The humanitarian and feasible alternative would be to end once and for all the persecution of Jews everywhere. The slaying of antisemitic hatred would qualify as one of the most beautiful conquests of civilization.

R. I.

1 I reordered the published list by descending size of the Jewish constituency.
2 The sum stands 124,600 Jews short of the avowed 5,500,000 living in Europe; the article does not explain this discrepancy.

March 29, 1906. El Correo Gallego, year XXIX, number 9384, page 2.
tr. The Galician Mail, doyen of the local press published in Ferrol.

On their way to Argentina

The French steamship Campania 1 left Vigo 2 bound for Buenos Aires with 900 Jews on board fleeing the bloody persecutions in Poland.

Entire families sail, constituting a very sad spectacle.

1 RMS Campania was actually a British ocean liner of the Cunard Steamship Company Ltd.
2 Vigo is a Galician port city 23 kilometers north of the Portuguese border.

July 2, 1906. El Correo Gallego, year XXIX, number 9464, page 3.
tr. The Galician Mail, doyen of the local press published in Ferrol.

Panic in New York

New York, 30. There were extraordinary scenes of panic on the city's East Side triggered by the rumour that a slaughter of Jews had begun. Thousands of these rushed to the schools to save their children, whose throats were being slit, it was said.

The Police Reserve has been called out.

More than twenty schools will be closed.

According to an inquiry tonsillectomies performed on children diagnosed with tonsillitis sparked the rumour.

No casualties were reported.

September 9, 1907. La Correspondencia Gallega: diario de Pontevedra, year XIX, number 5273, page 1.
tr. The Galician Correspondence, Pontevedra daily.

Eighth Zionist Congress

Holland hosted the eighth Zionist Congress a few days ago in "Geborwnvoor Hunsten," a city situated close to The Hague.

The Zionists are those Jews who work to resurrect the Jewish State in Palestine in all its ancient splendor.

Four hundred delegates attended the Congress. The notable propangadist of Zionism, M. Max Nordau, explained that the Zionist movement is the Jews' response to antisemitism and it purposes through the creation of a Jewish State in Palestine to end the oppression and misery endured by the Israelites in most nations and to guaranty them a normal means of living. Zionists must unite to show the world what they want and what they can do. Unity would spur civilized States to confer together and work out a solution to the Jewish question.

The congress unveiled two factions: one political, another pragmatic.

The more numerous political Zionists led by Max Nordau pretend to create a Jewish State in Palestine with the Powers' permission induced by a global union of Jews.

Pragmatic Zionism obviates that dicey consent and instead urges the acceleration of emigration to Palestine to ensure possession of the land and an expansion of agricultural colonies.

The main resolutions passed by the Congress were the following.

  1. To further useful development in Palestine.
  2. To establish a permanent office in the Holy Land to study the question of Israelite immigration.
  3. To introduce agricultural loans for all immigrants to the Holy Places.
  4. To resettle Palestine for the Jews.

The Zionist movement is far removed from having the importance some adherents claim. Jews have already overcome the prejudice that dissociated them from the rest of men in the civilized countries who treated them as pariah types. Moreover Zionism might bring about a new isolation of the Jews from the rest of the world and revive old prejudices which seem presently forgotten.

Wherefore most wealthy Jews prefer to remain subjects of their nations of residence to becoming citizens of Palestine, and their adherence to Zionism was manifested at the current Congress only in the offer they made of enormous sums of money for the comfortable settlement of impoverished Jews on some territory of America or Oceania.

However the Zionists rejected the offer as they did England's some years ago involving the cession of vast territories in Uganda. Zionism is adamant on this point: it's either the establishment in Palestine or the continuation of an erratic existence.

January 1, 1909. El Eco Franciscano, revista quincenal ilustrada, year XXVI, number 368, pages 20-22.
tr. The Franciscan Echo, illustrated magazine published semimonthly in Santiago de Compostela.

To the Holy Land, Spaniards!

El Eco Franciscano, February 15, 1912

Once more Sr. Urquijo 1 has just called on Spanish Catholics via the periodical press to enroll for the fifth pilgrimage to the Holy Land and Rome which next Spring will bow down before the divine Redeemer's glorious Sepulchre in the name of all the good sons of our Fatherland (p. 20).

Every year 10-15 thousand pilgrims trudge from Russia to the Holy Land, most of them full of years, white hair on their head, who spent a lifetime saving money to attain to the joy of contemplating in the twilight of life what they so desired to see in childhood. A noteworthy observation! Everyone is poor! The wealthy do not go! (p. 21).

More than a thousand pilgrims travel every year from Austria (p. 21).

Polish pilgrims are never absent from Jerusalem (p. 21).

Several times a year core groups of enthusiastic Catholics arrive there from France, Germany and England, praising their God, honouring their Fatherland before the locals (p. 21).

The first-ever organized pilgrimage to the Holy Land departed from Barcelona in the year 1881. The project yielded such excellent results that almost every European nation copied and followed the example (p. 22).

However after a few years the custom languished in Spain before it was revived by the distinguished Catholic ex-member of Parliament [i.e., Sr. Urquijo] who organized the first Pilgrimage that sailed from Barcelona in 1902.2 Three more Pilgrimages followed suit, and the one scheduled for this Spring will be the fifth one of the series (p. 22).

1 Jose María Urquijo e Ybarra (1872-1936) was a lawyer, newspaper editor and independent-Catholic politician elected in 1903. He was associated with the St. Vincent de Paul Workers' Patronage of Bilbao and was executed by the Republican side in the second month of the Spanish Civil War. Biography here.
2 Details of this first pilgrimage have already been provided, extracted from these three numbers of the official ecclesiastical bulletin of the bishopric of Lugo, year XXX: number 12, pages 179-190; number 13, pages 195-207; and number 14, pages 218-224.

December 1, 1909. El Eco Franciscano, revista quincenal ilustrada, year XXVI, number 390, pages 770-771.
tr. The Franciscan Echo, illustrated magazine published semimonthly in Santiago de Compostela.

Sketches of Caphernaum

According to the [Augustine] Fathers of the Assumption, Palestine has the same area as Belgium, i.e. 30,000 square kilometers, and in the monarchy of Solomon had 8,000,000 inhabitants. Thus its ancient population density was greater than the population density of any nation in the world presently, evincing the lavish life that Palestine enjoyed in his day. Today the net population of Palestine, native plus European, does not reach one million (p. 770).

Bedouin by the Jordan River

There is not a single town over an area of 800 square kilometers around Caphernaum. Bethsaida, Magdala, Korazim, Julias, Gerassa, etc., are today nothing more than a pile of ruins covered in brush. The countryside between Caphernaum and the mouth of the Jordan River can not be crossed without a real danger of being devoured by beasts, a contrast with the flocks of blackbirds that gladden and enliven it. Last March we crossed it and had a very bad experience when we came upon five big hyenas. We backed away instinctively when we saw them, but the Bedouin accompanying us, rifle slung over his shoulder, encouraged us saying that they did not attack in the daytime, and so we proceeded on our way without incident (p. 771).

In 1900 they [the Franciscan Fathers] put up two small provisional cabins there [i.e., on the overgrown site of the ancient synagogue], one for the labourers and another for the clergyman in charge of the planned excavations. But who among the Franciscans of the Holy Land will own the courage to settle among the ruins of a city covered in brush, full of scorpions and every species of snake, with wells here and there formed naturally by the lake's drainage and turned into wellsprings of pestilence, without any company for many leagues round about other than the wild beasts roaming at will and the Bedouins who, armed to the teeth, make the rounds of that lonesome wasteland from time to time? (p. 771).

December 15, 1909. El Eco Franciscano, revista quincenal ilustrada, year XXVI, number 391, page 813.
tr. The Franciscan Echo, illustrated magazine published semimonthly in Santiago de Compostela.

Turkey: A regime of genuine freedom

The schismatic Greeks, zealous to offend the Roman Pontiff, began publishing in Constantinople a novel entitled, La Papesse Jeanne.1 The Turkish Ministry of the Interior got wind of the false storyline and halted publication of the novel forthwith. As well the ministry banned the impious comedy of two French Jews, Foyer.2

1 Trailer of the homonymous French movie (2017).
2 The play's full name was Le Foyer. Its two authors were Octave Mirbeau and Thadée Natanson. Only the second was Jewish.

January 1, 1910. El Miño, es el diario de mayor circulación de la provincia, year XIII, number 3306, page 1.
tr. The Miño [river], it's the daily with the largest circulation of the province, published in Ourense.

The Jewish fatherland

The Jews rebel against the verdict that close to two thousand years ago sentenced them to live without a fatherland, and today Zionism, which we could tab Jewish nationalism, begins to manifest the first signs of an organization aiming to reunite the Jews for possessing the promised land, the territories between the Euphrates and Egypt.

Zionism was begun by Herzl twelve years ago in Germany but, say its defenders, it's still a long way from having gelled all the Israelites of the [German] Empire into a national movement.

The present Zionist Congress of Hamburg has not garnered the universal approval of Jews, as advertisements by prominent Israelites on some Hamburger newspapers attest.

These ads say that the majority of German Jews opposes Zionism vigorously and that hardly 100,000 out of twelve million Jews worldwide support it. Only 6,800 German Jews (out of a constituency of 600,000) are Zionists. A sizeable fraction disputes the movement's political takes and merely endorses the colonization efforts in Palestine. That is why—say the ads—the German Israelite community has declined to take part in the Congress. The congress convoked just 352 delegates.

The Jewish masses do not want to dissociate themselves from the rest of society other than religiously. Thus a Jew wishes to be German in Germany, French in France and Belgian in Belgium. He seeks no national identity apart from his country of residence.

Hence the rift with those who strive to awaken the historical ideal of a national Jewish consciousness.

Max Nordau the renowned president of the Hamburg Congress has pinned down the significance of Zionism with greater clarity,

Zionism is a movement whose objective is to provide a secure home in Palestine unconditionally for all the Jews living abroad in the nations of the world who can't or won't assimilate.

If this class of Jews asks for a permanent homeland in Palestine it is not to dwell there as naturalized foreigners or as tolerated guests but as heirs to a Jewish national life that was quashed 2,000 years ago physically but was preserved consciously.

Zionism is nonexistent in France but it teems in Russia among the intellectuals and the proletariat.

According to Max Nordau the most forceful opponents of Zionism are those affluent Jews who defer every ideal to their social ambitions,

These call themselves French, German or British with the same sense of right as natural citizens or natives. They do not forgive us our attempt to resurrect the Indian nation.

Aside from those Jews the Turkish State will be one of Zionism's most powerful foes. The Ottoman Empire, notwithstanding the advent of the Young Turks 1 who are infinitely more tolerant than the ancien régime, realizes that the creation of a Jewish nationality risks increasing the number of eclectic factions and races in it. That is why it refused to sell large tracts of Palestinian land to the Zionist Bank in several occasions despite the bank's juicy offers. Aware of the problem, the Zionists opted to make agricultural colonies the national hub of their primordial country.

Many wonder whether Zionism will be able to overcome the hostility of fellow Jews and eventually create the Jewish fatherland.

1 The Young Turks overthrew the autocratic rule of Sultan Abdul-Hamid in 1908. Wikipedia article here. A photograph of Abdul-Hamid's sons in cadet uniforms here.

February 15, 1910. El Eco Franciscano, revista quincenal ilustrada, year XXVII, number 395, page 118.
tr. The Franciscan Echo, illustrated magazine published semimonthly in Santiago de Compostela.

Palestinian customs (extract)

I am here in this Orient, cradle of Christianity, theater of all the centuries' greatest events since it witnessed the glorious deeds of famed Josuah the leader of the people of Israel. Since his campaign of conquest to our present day it has not lost its allure; thus we see that the Syrians or the Babylonians first, the Pharaohs next, Alexander of the Greek Empire, the generals to whom he bequeathed his vast domains, the Maccabeans and their epic feats, the Romans, the Crusaders of the Middle Ages and now the flourishing nations of Europe, all have set their sights upon this territory, aforetime fertile, emporium of civilization and industry, but which in the Turk's hands today we behold deserted—and because of the Sultans' nonchalant administration or the municipalities' neglect or the sloth of Mohammed's followers—we behold its fecund plains untilled, its rich mines unopened—lying deep inside the long mountain ranges which gird it—without the prospect of one miserable factory to hint at the active life of an enterprising spirit.


March 23, 1910. La Correspondencia Gallega: diario de Pontevedra, year XXII, number 6024, page 1.
tr. The Galician Correspondence, Pontevedra daily.

Catholic meeting in Puenteareas 1 (extract)

Almanaque Gallego for 1913

The preannounced Assembly called by several Catholics of this village to protest against secular schools has been held.

Law student D. Lorenzo Valdés begins his speech manifesting that Spain remained a great nation while the forward ranks of the army held high the standard of its God and its Fatherland. He demonstrates that the Jews were the ones who removed the Cross that crowned the Spanish flag, thenceforth turning our glories to disasters, and that the Jews were also the ones who acclimatized to Spain—where heresies and schisms had never infiltrated—the harmful Liberal doctrines which he blames for the misfortunes we bemoan today and for the existence of secular schools. He urges Catholics to organize themselves in Assemblies by parish, diocese and nation to protest, with our pastors at the head, all attacks against our religious and citizenship rights. And he concludes by saying that just as our forefathers took part in the struggle between Muslims and Christians so must we not shun the struggle presently joined between Catholicism and the libertarian sects.

1 Ponteareas is a municipality in the province of Pontevedra. Galipedia description here. It is also famous for the homonymous two-step.

May 23, 1910. La Correspondencia Gallega: diario de Pontevedra, year XXII, number 6073, page 1.
tr. The Galician Correspondence, Pontevedra daily.

Germans, masters of the Holy Land

The recent trip to Palestine by Prince Fredrick Eitel the Kaiser's second son to inaugurate the German orphanage on the Mount of Olives and the Our Lady of Zion Catholic Church seems to give the nod to those who hold that a complete Germanization of the Holy Land is nigh.

And truly there can be no doubt that German influence in Palestine is on a fast uptick since the luxurious visit of Wilhelm II 1 to Jerusalem in 1898. A traveller who recently ascended Mount Nebo and from that height contemplated like Moses the entire panorama of the Promised Land has said that the only buildings of Jerusalem visible from such a distance were all German establishments. Among them are the aforementioned Our Lady of Zion with its Benedictine convent, the Catholic hospice of St. Paul beside the Damascus Gate, the Catholic hospital of Kubabeh and the hospice on the Mount of Olives which bears the name of Kaiserina Augusta Viktoria,2 who picked the emplacement personally. Incidentally two bronze statues, two meters tall, sculpted by Moritz Wolff, were erected in the main yard of this hospice and for a few days had the other Great Powers concerned because said statues portray the Kaiser and his wife, she dressed as a medieval queen and he with the vestments and arms of the Crusaders, on his head the crown of the ancient kings of Jerusalem.

But far more important than those statues, however prophetic they might be, is the fact that the most influential association in the Holy Places today is the German Society of Jerusalem which not only has under its authority the institutions of German origin but also those founded by other countries, among them the Swedish hospital of Jerusalem, the Syrian orphanage, the industrial school of Jerusalem, etc.

Many Israelite institutions of Palestine also have a German origin. A big polytechnical school is being built in Haifa 3 thanks to the efforts of Dr. Nathan of Berlin.4 An important German iron tubing factory is negotiating the concession of Jerusalem's municipal water supply.5

Naturally the situation worries the other nations, especially the French, not just because a protectorate in Palestine might raise the status of Germany as an important nation but much more because naturally their heart breaks when they see their enemy obtaining peaceably, without the careless shedding of one drop of blood and entirely by its own efforts, what they were unable to obtain during the Crusades by force of arms and assisted by the whole of Christendom.

1 Wilhelm II (1859-1941) was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (1888 to 1918). Wikipedia biography here.
2 Augusta Viktoria of Schleswig-Holstein (1858-1921) was the last German Empress and Queen of Prussia. Wikipedia biography here.
3 Today's Technion, the Israel Institute of Technology.
4 Paul Nathan (1857-1927) was a German-Jewish social politician. German Wikipedia biography here.
5 The name of the German company was Carl Frank (Gigliori, Ilaria. Networks of Power: Water, Infrastructure and Territory in the West Bank, Occupied Palestinian Territories. Year 2010. University of Toronto, p. 23, handle).

June 19, 1910. El Miño, es el diario de mayor circulación de la provincia, year XIII, number 3435, page 1.
tr. The Miño [river], it's the daily with the largest circulation of the province, published in Ourense.

Pontevedra: Unamuno 1 and Columbus

The Pontevedran chapter of the Economic Society of the Friends of the Country proposes inviting Sr. Unamuno the wise dean of the University of Salamanca to give a conference about Columbus' nationality as he is so fond of the data published to date on this subject.

In a letter addressed to the head of that Institute, Unamuno states:

You have no idea how pleased I am that Columbus is Jewish and Galician. It pleases me because those insufferable Italians infest South America with a hatred of Spain and are the promoters of the stupid slur given over there to the most noble title of Galician.

1 Miguel de Unamuno (1864-1936) was a famous professor, writer, philosopher and dean of the University of Salamanca. He died under house arrest in obscure circumstances after the Nationalist side of the Spanish Civil War entered Salamanca. Wikipedia biography here.

March 1, 1911. El Eco Franciscano, revista quincenal ilustrada, year XXVIII, number 420, page 152.
tr. The Franciscan Echo, illustrated magazine published semimonthly in Santiago de Compostela.

Extraordinary number of pilgrims

The number of pilgrims who booked second and third class accommodation for the [sixth] pilgrimage to the Holy Land is so extraordinary that said bookings are ranked conditional.

Sixth pilgrimage to the Holy Land

Pilgrims who book first class accommodation have their berth guarantied.

May 15, 1911. La Voz de la Verdad, diario católico antiliberal con censura eclesiástica, year II, number 187, page 3.
tr. The Voice of Truth, Catholic anti-liberal daily with ecclesiastical censorship, published in Lugo.

The Moroccan question

Reports from Tangier inform that agitators are trying to stir up dissension among the troops of Fez.

El Eco Franciscano, February 15, 1918

Bremond 1 and the French consul General Mangin 2 strive to maintain the Sultan's authority by way of transactions because they feel that it is absolutely necessary for the restoration of law and order to negotiate with the rebels.

It has been confirmed that the situation in Fez is extremely grave.

The Makhzen has run out of cash, leading observers to believe it can keep resisting for at most fifteen days.

The principal men of Salé 3 hold frequent meetings in which belligerent dispositions prevail.

This attitude impacts the populace and foments the pretension of plundering the Hebrew neighbourhood, and this in turn is the reason why the Israelites have sought shelter in Rabat under the protection of French troops.

These safeguard the Hebrew neighbourhoods and threaten to bombard the population upon the first sign of an uprising.

1 Édouard Brémond (1868-1948) was a French general. Wikipedia biography here.
2 Charles Mangin (1866-1925) was a French general, Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor. French Wikipedia biography here.
3 Salé is an across-the-river suburb of the national capital Rabat. Wikipedia description here.

September 5, 1911. La Voz de la Verdad, diario católico antiliberal con censura eclesiástica, year II, number 277, page 2.
tr. The Voice of Truth, Catholic anti-liberal daily with ecclesiastical censorship, published in Lugo.

The Jews seeking a fatherland

The [tenth] Zionist Congress held in Basel discussed revising the movement's statutes and giving the movement a final framework.

When the point on Jewish emigration was raised a Russian delegate declared that 1,800,000 Jews had emigrated to the United States over the span of twenty-five years and that another 400,000 had gone to other countries.

The same delegate said that a way of channeling the emigration to Palestine must be devised in order to forestall the dispersal of the race since currently only 2,000 Jews move to Palestine yearly.

The congress moved that a proposition to set up an emigration Committee in Berlin be sent to the eight-member Committee for appraisal.

Almanaque Gallego (para el año 1912), year XV, pages 54-56. Manuel Castro López con la colaboración de distinguidos escritores y artistas. Buenos Aires: Talleres Heliográficos de Ricardo Radaelli.
tr. Galician Almanac for the year 1912, edited by Manuel Castro López with the collaboration of distinguished writers and artists. Printed at the Ricardo Radaelli Heliography Workshops, Buenos Aires (Argentina).

The Zionist question in the Orient 1

We have already demonstrated in one of our recent numbers with facts and proofs how support for the Zionist propaganda circulated in our country may bring extremely grave consequences for Ottoman judaism. It is irrefutably certain that the ruling circles of our country see this movement as baleful and that they throw all possible monkey wrenches into the realization of even the smallest project. To encourage or indeed brook the spread of Zionism among us is to risk losing the government's sympathy and that of the Turkish people.

We could append the words of Mr. Oscar Strauss the Ambassador of the United States in Constantinople to all the proofs we have hereto submitted.2 This eminent coreligionist who is apt to know precisely the opinion of the leading Ottoman circles because of his high rank in the capital has declared in a most categorical fashion that Zionism can bring immense harm to the Jews of Turkey by making them suspect elements in the eyes of the authorities and of the Turkish people. The words of Mr. Oscar Strauss caused a profound impression in the entire Jewish world and particularly in the Zionist sphere. But the leaders of that movement tried to erase this impression with misleading and childish arguments, endeavouring to make everyone believe that Mr. Oscar Strauss was ill-informed and that they alone grasp the real state of affairs. These arguments could only purpose to deceive the readers for it is absurd to pretend that the Ambassador of a great power like Mr. Strauss—an ardent Jew who always showed interest in the fate of his brothers; who defended them energetically with pen or word many times—was ill-informed about a movement which he has a great interest in understanding. The Zionist cause must be in a bad way when they pretend to discredit the words of an eminent man of state with such arguments.

We were therefore convinced that Zionism can only be detrimental to the interests of Ottoman judaism. Then something happened this week which bolstered our conviction even more; we did not go looking for it, it happened spontaneously.

Yesterday the honourable "Qiesós Nami Bie" the public education inspector of the "Bilect" [?], an influential member of the Ottoman Union and Progress Committee,3 a good friend of our journals, dropped by our Editorial Department for a visit. We had a friendly chat on various subjects. Qiesós Nami who, we repeat, is an influential member of the Committee, perfectly acquainted with the opinion of the ruling circles on all political matters, shifted the conversation to the subject of Zionism.

Qiesós Nami, fully conversant with this movement, asked us good-naturedly to expound its scope. Let the Zionists rest assured that we described the movement in the most favourable light. After having heard us attentively the honourable Inspector of public education said,

"Young Turkey will never allow the fulfillment of the Zionist projects whether they have a political object or not. Young Turkey will never allow the concentration of a large mass of Jews in Palestine because she must think about the future and forestall the possibility of snares later. We open wide the doors of our country to Jews persecuted in other countries on the condition that they will settle down in whatever province the empire requires it, but we will rebuff the Zionist projects vigorously for as long as Young Turkey exists.

"It is superfluous to assert that Turks ergo can not sanction Ottoman Jews taking part in this movement and working on its behalf. To date Israelites have enjoyed the full trust of the authorities and of the Turkish government. But if they undertake to expand a questionable movement it is only natural that they too will become notorious and when suspicion enters the soul it's hard to root it out. Therefore the expansion of Zionism in Turkey can only compromise Ottoman judaism."

"Pardon, Nami Bie, one last question. Do all the ruling circles hold the same unfavourable opinion of Zionism?"

"The ruling circles watch this movement generally with suspicion, this I can attest to. If some bureaucrat expresses a different opinion he is only expressing his own personal opinion, nothing more, which in this case stands in contradiction with that of the ruling circles.

"Hence it will be good to advise your coreligionists to drop all support to Zionism and to spurn it completely since this movement can only hurt Ottoman judaism."

Such are the words of Qiesós Nami, an influential member of the Union and Progress Committee who is at the same time a sincere friend of the Jews. Despite its diplomatic reserve this language speaks clearly enough: he says that Zionism constitutes a grave peril to Ottoman Israelites because it can spawn a powerful antisemitic reaction.

We wish to express our hope that in light of this menacing danger the few enthusiastic young men and the reporters of that enthusiasm will be reasonable and renounce all references to the propaganda of a movement which is under suspicion and which may bring a catastrophe upon all the Israelites of this country who till now have lived in complete tranquility and security.

Original translation from Hebrew to Ladino done by:

Benito F. ALONSO 4

Orense, 1911

1 The article is written in Ladino. In a short note Benito F. Alonso the author explains: "Direct transcription from the Hebrew, faithfully preserving the Judeo-Spanish text to show how the Jewish press typeset with the Hebrew characters continues publishing in Spanish albeit degenerate."
2 Oscar Strauss (1850-1926) was an American politician, Secretary of Commerce & Labor and ambassador to the Ottoman Empire over four administrations. Wikipedia biography here.
3 The Committee of Union and Progress was a dominant political party of the Ottoman Empire. Wikipedia article here.
4 Benito Fernández Alonso (1848-1922) was a politician, historian, retailer, researcher, chronicler, writer and founder of the Royal Galician Academy. Galipedia biography here.
Almanaque Gallego 1918, page 105

Benito F. Alonso started collaborating with Almanaque Gallego in 1903. On page 31 of the 1906 almanac he is described as follows:

He is a son of the province of Ourense who hails from a town on the borderland with Portugal. He is straightforward and festive. Deeply religious by nature and owing to his studies in the diocesan seminary, clean-shaven, upright, he wrote The Bishops of Ourense but chose wedlock over the priesthood, and that twice. He also wrote The Jews in Ourense, his latest book, which garnered a good reception from Hebrew intellectuals. Incapable of hurting a mosquito, a lover of peace, invariably smiling at and forbearing with his friends' pranks, he withal wrote The Wars against Portugal. The owner of one of the better houses which embellish Feijóo Square, well-heeled, he does not balk at standing behind a counter to turn the supposed bankruptcy of a retailer into a perfect liquidation with profit margin added.

January 5, 1912. Diario de Galicia, year V, number 928, page 1.
tr. Galician Daily, published in Santiago de Compostela.

Jewish audacity

We reproduce the following paragraphs from La Bourse Egyptienne, under the rubric of curiosity, apropos of Zionism and the scheme to dominate the world proposed by a Rabbi in his speech before the tribune of the Congress of Lemberg.1,2

Our readers will realize through them to what amazing extreme the Jews take their brash audacity; and they will notice at a cursory glance the coincidence between Israel's hankerings and Masonry's plans, these steered to satisfying those in full, which proves the very strong bond connecting them.

"My brothers," says the Grand Rabbi, "Lo, for nineteen centuries the Jews have striven to take hold of the world's Government, a pledge that God Himself delivered to Abraham the patriarch. However the Cross obtained the victory and humiliated the Jews. These, scattered the world over, were for a lengthy spell the object of horrible persecution. Nevertheless our hope abode. The very fact that Jews were dispersed across all the continents demonstrates that all those lands belong to him.3 Now we are witnessing the impressive spectacle of Israel growing stronger each day!

"Gold, metal before which all Humanity bows, gold the revered, is almost wholly in the hands of the Jews, and gold abets Israel's future. The epoch of persecution has ended. The progress and civilization of the Christian countries are the best haven sheltering the Jews and smoothing the realization of their plans. We Jews have at length seized control of the global stock markets: Paris, London, Berlin, Vienna, Hamburg and Amsterdam are ours. Wherever Jews dwell they possess immense fortunes.

"Currently all States are in debt. Debt compels them to hand over to the Jews guaranteed state-owned mines, railways and factories.

"But more is required, it's necessary for Jews to own all the land, especially the landed estates! If big landed properties were under Jewish ownership the Christian labourers who toil there would yield enormous earnings for Jews.

"We have stooped beneath the yoke since nineteen centuries ago; but today we have grown greater and more powerful than our oppressors. It is true that certain Jews brook getting baptized; but this deed ends up strengthening us further because a baptized Jew will never cease being a Jew. The days are coming when Christians will wish to become Jews and in that day the people of Judah will accept them in with despitefulness.

"The enemy of the Jews par excellence is the Catholic Church. This is why we come to graft on this accursed tree the spirit of disbelief, lasciviousness and self-indulgence. We must fan and kindle strife and dissension among the different Christian denominations.

"In the first place we must wage an implaccable struggle against the Catholic clergy in every sphere. We must confront the priests with the parodies, curses and scandals of their private life and so consign them to the disdain and derision of the world.

"We must halter the education system. The Christian religion must disappear from the school curriculum. The Church will lose its influence, fall into poverty and its wealth be Israel's booty.

"Above all the Jews must seize power and key professions. The legal profession, the judiciary and the medical profession must be in the hands of Jews. A Jewish doctor has the best chance to enter into an intimate relationship with a Christian family.

"The Jews must annul the indissolubility of a Christian marriage and enact the civil marriage all over the world. France has already been conquered by us and next will be Austria's turn.

"Lastly we must absolutely take hold of the press. And this will be the moment when our kingdom will be assured and complete." 4

1 La Bourse Egyptienne was a political, literary, financial and commercial newspaper published in Cairo from 1898 until 1961.
2 According to this Jewish Virtual Library webpage no Zionist Congress was ever held in Lemberg (today Lviv) between 1897 and 1921.
3 Here the newspaper inserts its own comment: "A very compelling reason, the fruit of a Grand Rabbi's sharp intelligence!"
4 La Bourse Egyptienne's front page of May 1, 1934, makes Diario de Galicia's quotation questionable. Egypt was under British occupation in 1912, hence the article's appearance in a prominent Cairo newspaper seems improbable. Furthermore the absence of a publication date or number round out the grounds for suspecting that mention of La Bourse Egyptienne was a ruse and a screen for expounding the stand of the Catholic Church on the growing international influence of Jews and Zionism. Indeed La Bourse Egyptienne would be a conveniently arcane title to most if not to all the readers of Diario de Galicia except to those who had enrolled in the pilgrimages to the Holy Land (see articles of January 1, 1909, "To the Holy Land, Spaniards!" and of March 20, 1902, "Brief of H. H. Pope Leo XIII granting indulgence to the first Spanish pilgrimage to the Holy Land").

February 28, 1912. El Correo de Galicia, year XIII, number 3359, page 1.
tr. The Mail of Galicia, with ecclesiastical censorship, published in Santiago de Compostela.

Expulsion of all Italians

Constantinople, 24. The Government has decided to expel all the Italians found in Syria and Palestine except for members of religious orders and those under the protection of France.

Bedouin warrior

Arab mentality

Cologne, 24. The Cologne Gazette correspondent in Constantinople has logged the remarks of Turkish officials back from Tripolitania concerning the Arab contingents they saw in action.1,2

Arabs are in their element fighting. They love war for the sake of war. Each tribe pledges a certain number of combatants to the army. The number changes but no tribe fails to meet its quota.

1 The Cologne Gazette was a German daily published in Cologne between 1803 and 1945.
2 Tripolitania was a littoral province of the Ottoman Empire in North Africa, conquered by Italy in 1911. Wikipedia article here.

March 1, 1912. La Región, year III, number 623, page 1.
tr. The Region, independent daily of general interests, news and notices, published in Ourense.

Dispatch from Rome: Judeo-Masonic Activity

Freemasons and Jews petition Italy for peace terms favourable to Turkey—Mr. Salem the ambassador of the "Young Turks"—Turkish public opinion blames "Union and Progress" for the indefensibility of Tripoli—Concessions envisaged for Tripolitania—Fiasco of the judeo-masonic projects—The general strike aborted—An Ottoman caliphate in Tripoli and in the Cyrenaica—Jews and Freemasons pretend to govern Europe

Salem the lawyer who is the talk of the press these days has come to Rome representing the Allatini and Levy houses property of Italians impacted by the Italo-Turkish War.1,2,3,4 In addition Salem was appointed by the Committee of Union and Progress to seek the backing of the Italian Grand Orient for framing peace terms favourable to Turkey when that day arrives, thus buttressing the judeo-masonic regime called "Young Turkey" which fractured extensively over its responsibility in the Tripolitanian war.5,6

Indeed all political parties of the Ottoman Empire opposed to "Union and Progress" accuse the "Young Turks" of having bungled the Tripoli affair, not readying the military defence of Tripoli in advance or attempting a diplomatic solution. In fact "Union and Progress" thought it had anticipated everything and precluded all difficulties when, through international Francmasonry channels, the Committee of Salonica discussed the matter with Luzzatti the president of the Italian Council of Ministers at the time.7

Luzzatti promised Italy's benevolance to "Young Turkey." Accustomed to masonic procedures and convinced that official governments as a rule execute what masonic lodges dispose, Salonica's judeo-masonic leaders felt relief in regard to Italy and confident about Tripolitania's future where they offered littoral coal-deposit concessions to foreign countries, etc., etc. All this was wrought in the masonic centers of Constantinople, Salonica and Rome, behind the back of the Italian Embassy in Constantinople.

Salem the lawyer, a more successful incognito on a previous visit to Rome, is well-informed about all this skulduggery. Luzzati was compromised and the Grand Orient of Justinian's Palace took upon itself the mission of making the Italian government implement in favour of the Turkish government the promise made by Luzzatti the Francmason and Israelite brother to the Francmason and Israelite brothers of Salonica.8

Everyone knows about the attempts of the Italian Grand Orient to thwart by violent means the sending of Italian troops to Tripolitania—everybody knows about the tricks used to declare the general strike, aborted by the ensuing national outrage—well known are the efforts of Freemasonry among whose leaders are the bosses of Italian socialism—and despite all these betrayals of the fatherland the Italian Grand Orient has the cheek to demur to all these charges and brand itself a good patriot who desires the triumph of Italian arms in Tripolitania.

Since then masonry has been working actively (unofficially) on the creation of international hopples to the achievement of a quick peace settlement; the masonic press advocates the establishment of an Ottoman caliphate in Tripoli and Cyrenaica.9 Realizing that the masonic intrigues are foundering and that conditions in Arabia and the Balkans press the government of Salonica and Constantinople to think seriously about peace, Salem is in Rome to handle private matters...which does not hinder his treating others quite distinct.

As we've already said, Salem meets everyday with the bosses of Justinian's Palace who just gave there an intimate reception in his honour.

When Salem the lawyer declared that no commission of the Turkish government had brought him here he gave himself away, and say what he might, the goal of his trip is none other than to lay down the chief guidelines for Italian masonry to follow in tandem with the Committee of Union and Progress in drafting peace terms with Turkey.

Incidentally Francmasons could not have found a better ambassador for the mission because Salem, an Israelite of Greece, enjoys the reputation of being a skilful person with extensive knowledge of politics and finance, a leverage enhanced by his high position and degree in international masonry.


1 Emmanuel Raphael Salem (1859-1940) was a Jewish lawyer born in Salonica who specialized in international treaties. He also advised La Banque de Salonique, the first bank established in Salonica. He received numerous honours for his international mediation work from the Holy See, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, France, Greece, Italy and the Ottoman Empire. He moved to Paris in or before 1924 and exercised there as the president of the Sephardi congregation and as a member of the Central Committee of the Alliance Israélite Universelle. Sources: and Punto Grecia.
2 The Allatinis living in Salonica of the Ottomans (today Thessaloniki) held Italian citizenship and were expelled by the Turks when the Italo-Turkish War broke out in 1911. The story of the famous Allatini family here.
3 The Levys living in Salonica of the Ottomans were also impacted. War flooded the city with refugees and soldiers, halted business and transport and brought hunger. The Greeks defeated the Turks. Salonica was renamed Thessaloniki. Greek culture and religion prevailed. The story of the famous Levy family here.
4 The Italo-Turkish War lasted from September 29, 1911, to October 18, 1912. Wikipedia article here.
5 The Grand Orient of Italy is an Italian masonic grand lodge founded in 1805. Wikipedia article here.
6 "Young Turkey" was the name of the umbrella political party which the Committee of Union and Progress adhered to.
7 Luigi Luzzatti (1841–1927) was an Italian jurist, economist, banker and politician who was President of the Council of Ministers of the Kingdom of Italy from March 31, 1910, to March 29, 1911. Italian Wikipedia biography here.
8 This Palace of Justinian is not the Byzantine emperor's but Rome's Palazzo Giustiniani, home of the Giustiniani family from 1590 until 1898 when it became the see of the Italian Grand Orient. After 1943 it became the official residence of the president of the Italian Senate.
9 The eastern region of Libya was part of the ancient Roman province of Crete and Cyrenaica. It became an Italian colony once more in 1911. Wikipedia article here.

January 7, 1913. El Diario de Pontevedra, year XXX, number 8599, page 1.
tr. The Pontevedra Daily, doyen of the press of this capital.

The original wheat (extract)

An agronomist who has just finished making an exploration trip across the Upper Galilee says he has discovered a specimen of wild wheat which must be the ancestor of our modern wheat.

The wild wheat, sometimes covering far-reaching fields, is a sturdy plant whose grains measure on the average eleven millimeters long and whose nutritional properties have nothing to envy those of the domestic cereals we habitually consume today.

Lastly the most interesting property of this wheat whose origin hearkens back to the days of Genesis is its admirable resistance to all types of climate; it does not fear exposure to the hot sun or to frosts and adapts easily to very arid or very rocky terrains.

Therefore if the Jews of the entire world decide one day, as the Zionists so desire, to go en masse to colonize Palestine, their ancient fatherland, they will not have to exert themselves a lot to raise their crops since the wheat grows by itself.

January 9, 1913. La Región, year IV, number 883, page 2.
tr. The Region, independent daily of general interests, news and notices, published in Ourense.

The Pope intervenes in the Balkans Conference

London. It is affirmed that the Pope has sent ambassadors to the conference to draw attention to the plight of Palestine.1,2

Pope Pius X

The Pontiff wants the Powers to reach an agreement which would snatch the Holy Land away from infidel administration.

1 The Pope at this time was Pius X. He ruled the Roman Catholic Church from 1903 to 1917.
2 The Balkans Conference was an intermittent meeting of Ambassadors from Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Ottoman Empire and Russia who gathered in London to tackle the outbreak of the First Balkan War (1912-13) and the consequences of Turkey's defeat in it. Wikipedia article here.

January 10, 1913. El Eco de Galicia, year X, number 1965, page 2.
tr. The Echo of Galicia, Catholic daily, the doyen of the province's press, published in A Coruña.

Inexact news

There is no foundation whatever to the news that the Pope had besought the ambassadors attending the London conference to deprive Turkey of any role in Palestine involving the guaranty of the inviolability of the Holy Places.

January 14, 1913. La Región, year IV, number 887, page 1.
tr. The Region, independent daily of general interests, news and notices, published in Ourense.

From Tangier (excerpt)

Tangier. But let my readers know that there is more concern about Morocco elsewhere than in Morocco itself. The Moors because their languor mounts to an incredible degree in this as in all others matters; the Jews because they don't own a flag, and the Christians because sad experience tells us that however many pretended reforms are introduced in this country they will all be futile until the ignorance and the fanaticism of the natives are banished.

Misionero Apostólico.

Tangier. January 9, 1913.

January 28, 1913. Noticiero de Vigo, year XXVIII, number 11433, page 2.
tr. Vigo`s Newspaper.

French royalists in action

Paris. The Versailles Tribunal has sentenced Charles Maurras the royalist writer to eight months in jail and a fine of 200 French Francs for having inflicted some insignificant wounds on a policeman during a commotion.1

Upon hearing the sentence the accused said, "I move my appeal from the Jewish judge to the French judge."

Royalists stood up for their friend and the public in the courtroom went over to their side shouting, "Down with the Jews!"

Gendarmes had a hard time reestablishing peace.

1 Charles Maurras (1868-1952) was a French author, politician, poet, critic and founder of Action Française. Wikipedia biography here.

February 1, 1913. Noticiero de Vigo, year XXVIII, number 11437, page 2.
tr. Vigo`s Newspaper.

A journalist's arrogance

Paris. The Catholic or independent press has angrily protested the "scandalous" ruling of the Versailles Tribunal presided by Worms [a Jewish examining magistrate] sentencing notable writer and eminent journalist Charles Maurras to eight months in jail and a fine of 200 French Francs for administering blows causing bodily harm.

Rochefort writes in La Patrie, "It is true that if Maurras were Jewish he would not have been sentenced by Worms the Jew to eight months in jail under pretext of a fracas where it's unclear who struck whom first.1,2 The inflated sentence handed down to our pal Charles Maurras displays all the signs of implacable rancour. It is without doubt the avatar of Dreyfus' threat: 'My race will avenge itself on your race.'"

The following are the facts. A little more than a month ago a spat broke out as militants of Action Française were leaving a meeting in Versailles—Maurras is their mouthpiece. There were a few give-and-takes and the Camelots du Roi, ardent, gung-ho youths, landed a few raps on a few heads.3 Charles Maurras was present and, being the tastiest prey, on him was pinned the blame for the blows and bruises dealt out in the brawl.

Maurras' attitude before the Jewish Tribunal last Saturday [i.e. January 25] is well known.4

He replied to the president's questions twice, energetically, "I am a Frenchman and I shall not answer the questions of a Jewish magistrate."

After a false charge and sentence were read out, Charles Maurras exclaimed in a firm, vibrant voice, "I shift my appeal from the Jewish judge to the French judge." A great salvo of applause filled the courtroom, followed by shouts of "Down with the Jews!"

La Libre Parole says, "the sentence is outrageous, Worms the Jew, president of the tribunal, has conducted himself like a varlet throughout the trial." 5

Maurras will probably appeal this arbitrary sentence; but if he should face another Jew in the next trial the most propitious outcome he can hope for is to have the penalty unaltered. And Thalamas will be watching, for he will presently want to requite the kicks he received years ago from the Camelots du Roi, the illustrious journalist's disciples, who forced Thalamas to quit teaching for deprecating Joan of Arc daily.6


1 Henri Rochefort (1831–1913) was a playwright, journalist, editor and radical politician. Wikipedia biography here.
2 "La Patrie" was a rightist newspaper, self-styled "organ of national defence," published in Paris from 1841 to 1937. Wikipedia article here.
3 Camelots du Roi [Couriers of the King] was the youth branch of Action Française active from 1908 to 1936. Wikipedia article here.
4 This column in Journal de St. Quintin describes the courtroom incident in greater detail. Item retrieved from RetroNews on June 18, 2024.
5 The La Libre Parole column can be read here. Item retrieved on June 18, 2024.
6 Amédée Thalamas (1867-1953) was a secondary school teacher of history and geography who went on to lecture at the Sorbonne and to be Director General of Public Education in Indochina. He also served in the National Assembly as a radical deputy between 1910 and 1914. French Wikipedia biography here.

February 6, 1913. La Voz de la Verdad, diario católico antiliberal con censura eclesiástica, year IV, number 753, page 1.
tr. The Voice of Truth, Catholic anti-liberal daily with ecclesiastical censorship, published in Lugo.

Let us revindicate Salonica (excerpt)

The Turks tear each other apart, and the European States will not tarry long in imitating them.1

1 Echauri was referring to the squabble over territorial claims made by European powers after the Ottoman Empire rescinded its armistice with three members of the Balkan League on January 30, 1913. International Encyclopedia article here.

March 18, 1913. El Progreso, diario independiente, year VII, number 957, page 2.
tr. Progress, independent newspaper published in Pontevedra.

Conference about Columbus' obscure origin

Madrid, 17, 10:20 PM. Sr. Arribas y Turull has delivered a remarkable conference at the Atheneum today.1

The theme of the conference was "Christopher Columbus a native of Pontevedra."

The lecturer states in the Memorandum he read from that the immediate cause for holding the present act was his having been publicly challenged in the press to expound on a theory he has put forward some time ago and reaffirms: the immortal mariner is Galician.

He dismisses Sr. Altamira's claim that Columbus was born in Genoa for lack of proof.

He proves that the surname Columbus is a variant of Colón and maintains that the latter is found only in Pontevedra, demonstrating that the Galician city was his birthplace.

He adds that Colón the surname was used by many Jews then living in Spain, and from this deduces that a Hebrew discovered America.2

He added that Columbus himself unveiled what was his mother tongue in a romance written by him in Castilian.

He also reminds the house that the names Columbus assigned to the first territories he discovered evoke Galician placenames and afford a new and powerful argument on behalf of his thesis.

He exalts Sr. García de la Riega the genuine author of the theory which he, the orator, merely disseminates for public knowledge.3,4

The orator was extremely eloquent.

He was interrupted at recurrent intervals by enthusiastic ovations of the audience which at the conclusion of the lecture rewarded him with thunderous applause.

The event was a smash success. Many people and distinguished individuals attended.

Sr. Bonilla the president of the Historical Sciences Section of the Atheneum presided over the act.5

Among the numerous literary figures present were Srs. Ribalta, Rodrigo Sanz, Said Armesto, Neira, Barcia and Romero.6,7,8,9,10,11

1 Enrique M. de Arribas y Turull (1892-1952) was a Castilian lawyer and politician. Spanish Wikipedia article here. Indirect source for the year of his birth here.
2 Noticiero de Vigo circumscribes the Jews surnamed Colón to those living in Pontevedra prior to the Catholic Kings' Edict of Expulsion.
3 Celso García de la Riega (1844-1914) was a Galician historian, writer and painter. Spanish Wikipedia biography here.
4 Noticiero de Vigo adds two other points the orator made, (i) Columbus did not know Italian and (ii) Columbus baptized his flagship, "La Gallega," but was compelled to rename it, "Santa María." The updated comprehensive theory about the Galician origin of Christopher Columbus can be found here written in Spanish.
5 Adolfo Bonilla y San Martín (1875-1926) was at this time both president of the historical sciences section and second vice president of the Atheneum governing council.
6 Aurelio Ribalta Copete (1864-1940) was a Galician poet and literary figure who spent most of his life in Madrid. Biography here.
7 Rodrigo Sanz López (1872-1939) was a Galician regionalist politician. Galipedia biography here.
8 Víctor Said Armesto (1871-1914) was a Galician intellectual, journalist, folklorist, ethnographer and "magnificent" orator (source).
9 Possibly Antonio López de Neira (1827-1919), a Galician businessman, politician and mayor of Vigo. Galipedia biography here.
10 Juan Barcia Caballero (1852-1926) was a Galician doctor, writer, journalist and politician. Biography here.
11 Celestino García Romero (1855-1929) was a Galician friar and writer. Galipedia biography here.

April 2, 1913. Diario de Galicia, year 6, number 1300, page 1.
tr. Galician Daily, published in Santiago de Compostela.

Secularism is doing away with France

One more time, this one with signs of a greater urgency, the neighbouring nation faces the problem of a drop in population.

France wastes away, consumed by pampering, steeped in vices, torn down by corrosive doctrines prevailing there after the State officially apostasized from faith in Christ and fell into the arms of Francmasons and Jews.

Freemason caricature of 1936

France wastes away so visibly, so quickly, that public authorities have become aware of the ailment's gravity, but it's too late because even if a remedy were found neither society nor the individual has the courage to apply it.

France wastes away. The official statistics published at the beginning of the current year are terrible; they call up the dreadful voice of the angel of the Apocalypse. Last year deaths outnumbered births by 40%. There were 70,000 fewer births in 1912 than in any one of the past years.

France wastes away because of that society's degeneracy, because of a crass and stupid egoism. They presume to dwell in this world only for pleasure, and they have endeavoured to remove all restraints. This is the truth.

It's not as if they have supposed that there are too many men—no—they figured that children arrive with caretaking chores, worries and heartaches, and they wish to skip having them.

France wastes away, and certainly not because of wars. That unfortunate nation was engaged in great conflagrations, yet the number of births did not diminish, men were not wanting.

France wastes away because she is corrupt, degenerate, pimped.

The proof is that the population does not decrease in provinces like Normandy and Brittany where faith and purity of customs is preserved. There the number of births levels with the number of deaths.

The proof is that Great Britain, Holland and Germany do not suffer from the malady that afflicts the neighbouring republic.

France wastes away ever since secularism was established and with it civil marriage and divorce.

Unhappy France! What would your most Christian monarchs, your countless Saints, your great sages, your immortal Crusaders say if they lifted the head from their sepulchre!

France wastes away because she is immoral like the cities of Pentapolis, like pagan Rome.1

And France's assassins want Spain to follow the same course. That's why Francophiles wish to implant free education devoid of religious teaching; that's why they strive for a secularist empire; that's why they hail civil marriage, divorce and the secularization of graveyards.

France wastes away, assassinated by politicians who style themselves her saviours. They too will pass away. God's justice will prevail and a terrible punishment will befall those who did away with a nation worthy of a better destiny commensurate with her history.

Spain still has some time to save herself if she really wants to. Let us repent on someone else's whacked head.

War against godless education!

Long live the Catechism that makes the peoples great, prosperous and joyous! 2

1 The biblical Pentapolis refers to the five cities of Sodom, Gomorrha, Zoar, Adama and Seboim (Genesis 14). Full article here.
2 Two excerpts from a Spanish catechism published in the year 1939: "Which are Spain's enemies?"—"Seven are Spain's enemies: Liberalism, Democracy, Judaism, Freemasonry, Capitalism, Marxism and Separatism" ... "What is Judaism?"—"Judaism is the socio-political system adopted by the Jewish people after they executed Christ to rule the world according to their prophecies; and since it cannot fulfill its desire for world domination other than through weakening or destroying the civilized and Christian peoples it deems all means to that end legitimate, spreading all sorts of immorality, seeding all types of error, fomenting political parties and strife among the nations and even procuring wars to bring mutual destruction to the peoples" (Menéndez-Reigada. Catecismo Patriótico Español. 3rd Ed. Salamanca: Calatrava, 1939, chapter XXXII, pp. 55-56).

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(To Be Continued)

Men At Work traffic sign

When I Was a Child in Ferrol, Spain (1953-65)